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THE 

HISTORIC STYLES 



OF 



ORNAMENT 

CONTAINING 1500 EXAMPLES FROM ALL COUNTRIES 
AND ALL PERIODS, EXHIBITED ON 

ONE HUNDRED PLATES 

MOSTLY PRINTED IN GOLD AND COLOURS 



WITH 

HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE TEXT, 
TRANSLATED FROM THE GERMAN OF H. DOLMETSCH. 



LONDON 

B. T. BATSEORD, 94 HIGH HOLBORN, 

1898. 

PRINTED IN GREAT-BRITAIN 







Printed by Hoft'mann, Stuttgart. 



PREFACE. 



1 he rise of technical education is everywhere accompained by an increasing 
interest in the art productions of ancient and modern times, and a thorough knowledge of 
the different styles of ornament becomes more and more necessary to all designers and 
Art workers. 

The aim of this publication is to meet this need. It is not intended to set forth 
theoretical precepts , but to serve as a practical guide , showing by a series of examples 
chronologically arranged, how, in succeeding epochs, Ornament, and especially the appli- 
cation of colour to it, developed in various countries. 

In compiling it my object has been specially directed to the classification of such 
prominent and characteristic types as are most suitable for systematic study ; and to 
supply Art Workers, from whom the fickle taste of our time constantly requires new 
forms, with a Treasury in which they can find valuable suggestions for working out 
original designs. 

Thanks to those who have aided in forming this collection by placing at my 
disposal objects of Art, and original drawings, and also owing to the material collected 
during my travels, I am fortunately able to illustrate many examples hitherto unpublished. 

It has been my endeavour to give, as far as possible, the exact titles of the books 
from which illustrations have been borrowed, in order to direct those desirous of further 
examining special styles to the most helpful works illustrating them. ^ 

It is hoped that this third edition, increased by the addition of 15 plates and 
136 illustrations in the text, may meet with a cordial reception, and prove useful to all 
who may examine its contents. 

October, 1897. 

H. Dolmetsch. 



293870 



LIST OF PLATES. 



Egyptian, 

Painting and Plaster Work 

Architecture and Painting 

Assyrian. 

Paintiny;, Painted Sculpture, Pottery . . 
Greek. 

Architectural Ornament and Sculpture 

Polychromatic Ornament 

Pottery 

Roman. 

Architectural Ornament, Sculpture . . . 

Mosaic Pavements 

Pompeian. 

Wall Painting, Basso Relievos .... 

Bronzes 

Chinese. 

Painting 

Painting, Weaving, Embroidery, Cloisonne 
Japanese. 

Lacquer Painting 

Weaving, Painting, Cloisonne .... 
Indian. 

Metal Work 

Embroidery, Weaving, PI aitingjLacquerwork 

Marble Inlay 

Metal Work, Emliroidery, Weaving, Painting 
Persian. 

Architectural Ornament 

Pottery 

Weaving, Illumination 

Metal Work 

Wall Decoration in Faience . . . . ^ 
Arabian. 

Weaving, Embroidery, Painting .... 

Ornament in Wood and Metal .... 

Illumination of IVlanuscripts 

Arabian-Moresque. 

Architectural Ornament 

Mosaic Work, Faience 

Moresque. 

Architectural Ornament 

Turkish. 

Architectural Ornament in Faience 
Celtic. 

Illumination of Manuscripts 

Byzantine. 

Glass Mosaic, Coloured Enamel, Illumination 
Incrusted Enamel, Marlile Mosaic, Glass 

Mosaic 

Weaving, Embroidery 

Architecture, .Sculpture 

Russian. 

Manuscript-Painting 

Architectural Ornament and Wood Carving 

Enamel, Majolica, Wall Painting, Ceilings, 

Japanned W^jodwork 

Northern. 

Wood Carving 

Middle Ages. 

luiamel, Illumination of Manuscripts 

Wall Painting 

Stained Glass 

Stone Mosaic 

Wood Mosaic 

Stained Glass 



D 

6 



lO 

1 1 

12 

13 

H 

15 
i6 
i6A. 

17 

iS 
19 

20 
21 

22 

23 
24 

25 

26 

27 

28 
29 

30 



32 

33 
34 

34^- 
34^- 

34'^- 



34 

35 
36 

37 
38 

39 
40 



1). 



Middle Ages. 

Architectural Ornament, Sculpture ... 41 
Weaving, Eml)roidery , Enamel, Painted 

Sculpture J.2 

Illumination of Manuscripts 43 

Ceiling and Wall Painting 44 

Italian Renaissance. 

Glass Painting _}.5 

Painted Faience . <6 

Ornamental Painting 47 

Wood iNIosaic 18 

Ceiling Painting _j.g 

L^^-e ■ 50 

Embroidery, Carpet Weaving . . . . 51 
Sgraffito, Wood INIosaic, Marble Mosaic, 

Basso Relievos 52 

Ceiling and Wall Painting 53 

Illumination, Weaving, Marble, Mosaic . 54 

Pottery Painting 55 

Ornament in Marble and Bronze ... 56 

Ceiling and \\'all Painting jy 

\\'orks in Preciou.s Metals and Enamel . 5J5 
French Renaissance. 

Typographic Ornaments 59 

Block Printing, Embroidery 60 

Tapestr}' Painting 6 1 

Ornaments in Stone and Wood .... 62 

Ceiling Painting . . 63 

Weaving, Embroider}-, Book Covers . . 64 
Wall Painting, Painted Sculpture, Weaving, 

Book Covers 65 

Gobelins 66 

Enamel on Metal, Pottery Painting, Metal 

Mosaic 67 

Ornament on Wood and Metals etc. . . 68 
German Renaissance. 

Ceiling and Wall Painting, Wood Mosaic, 

Embroidery 69 

Stained Glass Painting 70 

Metal Work 71 

Painted Plaster Work 72 

Ornaments from Book Covers .... 73 

Embroider\- 74 

Tj'pograjjhic Ornaments 75 

Painted Plaster Ornament 76 

Ornament in .Stone and Wood .... 77 

Ceiling and Wall Painting 78 

Wall-Painting, Ornament in.Stcme and Wood 78 A. 

Cartouches and works in Metal and Enamel 79 
XVII., XVIII., XIX. Centuries. 

Embroider\-, Leather Tapestrw Goldsmiths 

Work .' " 80 

Gobelins Tapestry and Book-Binding . . 80A. 

Metalwork and Woodcarving SoB. 

Mosaic Pavements 81 

Plaster Ornaments 82 

Painted Plasterwork 82A. 

Gobelins Weaving 82B. 

Painting, LeatherTapestry,. Stucco Ornaments S3 

Painted Plaster Ornament 84 

Lace Weaving, Embroidery 85 

Metal Fittings S6 

Wall Painting and Ceiling Decoration . 87 

Gobelins Tapestry and Lacework ... 88 

Metal Ornaments 89 

Silk Weaving 90 




INDEX. 



Acroteria Plate 4. 

Anthemia 4. 

Architectural Ornament 2. 4. 5. 7. iS. 26. 28. 29. 

34- 34"- 34D- 41- 62. 77. 82. 
Architectural Ornament in Colour 5. 
Basso relievos 9. 
Block printing 60. 
Book covers 64. 65. 73. 80 A. 
Bricks, glazed 3. 
Bronzes 10. 56. 
Candelabra 7. 9. 10. 
Capitals 4. 7. 18. 26. 28. 34. 34B. 34D. 41. 56. 

62. 82. 
Carpet painting 42. 61. 
Carpet weaving 51. 
Cartouches 58. 72. 79. 
Caryatides 4. 62. 77. 
Claj-j glazed 22. 27. 29. 
Damascene work 15. 21. 68. 
Embroidery 12. 16. 17. 23. 3$. 42. 51. 60. 64. 69. 

74. 80. 85. 88. 
Enamel, cloisonne 12. 14. 
Enamel, incrusted 32. 
Enamel painting 12. 14. 17. 31. 32. 34 C. 35. 42. 58. 

67. 79. 
Engraved work 68. 
Etching work 68. 
Faience, polychrome 19. 67. 
Faience plates 46. 
Flat ornament 68. 
Frontispieces, painted 4. 
Glass, Stained 37. 40. 45. 70. 
Glass, Mosaic 31. 32. 
Gobelins 66. 80 A. 82 B. 88. 
Goldsmith's work 35. 58. 79. 80. 
Illumination 17. 20. 25. 30. 31. 35. 43. 54. 
Initials 30. 35. 43. 54. 59. 75. 
Intarsia 39. 48. 52. 68. 69. 81. 
Ivory, inlaid 68. 



Laces Plate 50. 

Lace weaving 85. 

Lacciuer painting 13. 16. 17. 34 <^- 

Leather tapestry 80. 83. 

Linen embroidery 69. 

Low reliefs 34 C. 52. 

Majolica 55. 

Marble, inlaid 1 6 A. 52. 

Marble mosaic 54. 

Marble ornaments 16 A. 56. 

Metal, inlaid 67. 68. 

Metal work 15. 17. 21. 24. 31. 56. 67. 68. 71. 79. 

80. 80 B. 86. 89. 
Mosaic floors 8. 32. 38. 51. 
Mosaic work 8. 27. 32. 38. 39. 54. 81. 
Niello work 48. 52. 

Ornamentation 4. 7. 26. 28. 41. 56. 68. 84. 
Ornaments, Plaster 56. 62. 77. 84. 
Ornament, Tj'pographic 59. 75. 
Painting i. 2. 3. 11. 12. 14. 17. 23. 44. 47. 49. 80B. 

82 A. 83. 84. 
Plaiting 16. 
Plastic art I. 3. 10. 34. 41. 42. 56. 62. 65. 72. 76. 

77. 78 A. 82. 82 B. 84. 
Plaster Ornaments, coloured i. 3. 42. 65. 72. 76. 83. 
Pottery 3. 6. 14. 19. 22. 27. 29. 38. 46. 67. 
Precious metals, enamelled 58. 79. 
Robbia ware 46. 
Sculpture i. 3. 10. 34. 41. 42. 56. 62. 65. 72. 76. 

77. 82. 84. 
Sculpture, coloured i. 3. 42. 65. 72. 76. 83. 
Sgraffito 52. 

Typographic ornaments 59. 75. 
Wall and ceiling painting 9. 34 C. 36. 44. 47. 49. 53. 

57. 63. 65. 69. 78. 78 A, 82 A. 83. 84. 87. 
Weaving 12. 14. 16. 17. 20. 23. t,^. 42. 51. 54. 64. 

65. 66. 74. 80 A. 82 B. 85. 88. 90. 
Wood, inlaid 39. 68. 6g. 81. 
Wood decorations 24. 34 B. 34D- 48. 62. 72. 77. 



Plate I. 



EGYPTIAN. 



PAINTING AND PLASTIC ART. 



lh( 



.he mode of decoration with the Egyptians, the most ancient of civilized nations, comprises symboHc 
figure -subjects chiefly in conjunction with hieroglyphics. Columns and walls were used to write thereon 
a pictorial chronicle of religious and every-day-life. The figural representations on the outer walls of 
Egyptian buildings consist of very flat, frequently painted reliefs, called coilanaglyphs. The contours are 
deep cut, the object is treated plastically, but in such a way, that the most prominent parts remain equal 
to the surface of the wall. Plate i Fig. i. The paintings themselves are carried out in flat tints without 
any modelling at all, they have sharp contours and show a rich and harmonious combination of colours. 

From the vegetable and animal kingdoms in Egyptian ornamentation the most frequently em- 
ployed are: the lotus flower, (an attribute of Isis and a symbol of the generating power of nature); the 
Nymphaea, the papyrus, the reed etc.; moreover the ram, the sparrow-hawk and especially the dung-beetle 
— Scarabaeus — PL i Fig. 2. Another symbol, frequently used, is the winged disk of the sun. PI. 2 Fig. 2. 

The capitals in PL 2 show also the application of the above mentioned vegetable motives, viz. 
Fig. 3 of the papyrus, Fig. 4 a capital composed of buds, the shaft representing a bundle of wood-stems, 
Fig. 5 palm-leaves and Fig. 6 a bud of the papyrus. 



Fig. I. Painted relief-figure from a column of the temple at Denderah. 

„ 2 and 3. Paintings from mummy-cases. 

„ 4 and 5. Front a mummy-case in the Louvre, Paris. 

,, 6. Painted border from a sarcophagus. 

„ 7. Border from a mummy-case. British Museum, London. 

„ 8. Ornament on a wooden sarcophagus. London. 

., 9. Border on a mummy-case. British Museum. 

„ 10. Portion of a collar. London. 

„ II. Painting on a sarcophagus. London. 



Plate 2. 



Fig. I 



EGYPTIAN. 



ARCHITECTURE and PAINTING. 



Pylon (entrance-tower) with figural representations and hieroglyphics. Louvre, Paris. 

Cornice of the entablature of the great temple at Philae. Sculpture and painting. 

Capital from the temple at Luxor, representing full-blown papyrus. 1200 B. Chr. 

Capital from a temple at Thebes. (Buds-capital.) 

Capital from a portico at Edfu. (Representing a palm-tree.) 

Capital from Thebes, 1200 B. Chr. Represents a papyrus-bud. 

Mummy-case-painting. 



,, 8 and 9. Scaly designs. Paintings from tomb-chambers. Louvre, Paris. 



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ARCHITECTURE AND PAINTING. 



Plate 3. 



I 



ASSYRIAN. 

PAINTING. POLYCHROME SCULPTURE. POTTERY. 



Xhe excavations on the hank.s of the Tigris at Khorsabad, Nimroud and Koyunjik brought to light a 
great number of architectural remains, paintings and sculptures of Assyrian origin, which give us an idea of 
the magnificence and the exuberant luxury of the buildings of this nation. Assyrian ornament certainly 
betrays Egyptian influence, but there is no denying its originality. Besides geometrical figures, such as 
interlacements, zigzag lines, rosettes etc. animal and vegetable motives are used in sculpture and painting. 
Frequently we find even the so-called sacred tree (Fig. 11 and 12), mostly as bas-reliefs and painted, 
further winged griffins, lions and bulls with human faces. The winged male figure in the midst of our 
plate symbolizes the soul. For wall-coating glazed bricks frequently were employed and painted with 
regularly repeated figure-subjects or with interlacing designs. 



Fig. I. Portion of a glazed brick from a palace at Khorsabad. 
„ 2 — 4. Painted bas-reliefs from Koyunjik. 
,, 5. Painted ornament from Nimroud. 
„ 6. Glazed brick from Khorsabad. 
„ 7 — 10. Painted ornaments from Nimroud. 
,, II — 12. Sacred trees. Painted bas-reliefs from Nimroud. 
„ 13. Painted ornament from Nimroud. 
„ 14. Enamelled brick from Khorsabad. 



•* 4 *»".ap— 




Plate 4. 

GREEK. 

ORNAMENTAL ARCHITECTURE and SCULPTURE. 



G. 



Treek ornament preserves for ever a classical value, chiefly because the Grecian artists knew how to 
adapt the decoration to their artistic productions in such a way, that it nowhere overpowers the construc- 
tive groundwork, but rather accompanies it in beautiful lines and forms. Thus the fundamental form 
remains visible in its distinct substantiality, only relieved all the more by the ornament. Whether you 
look on the magnificent works of architecture or on the simplest objects for domestic use, produced by 
the Greeks, you will find, that all these works strike and surprise the beholder by their high perfection 
of form and their sublime beauty. 

Fig. 1 — 3 show examples of tlie three forms of development of Greek architecture: of the Doric, 
Jonic and Corinthian styles. 

The calm simplicity of the Doric capital expresses the purpose of supporting, and its forms put us 
in mind of the severity of the Doric race. Fig. 2 shows elegance and perfect grace, in conformity with 
the character of the Jonians. But in the exuberant forms of the Corinthian capital that love of splendour 
is represented, which from Corinth, the rich trading-place, spread over all Greece. 

Fig. 4 shows one of those noble virginal figures, used instead of pillars in the Caryatide porch of 
the Erechtheium. 



Fig. I. Doric capital from Paestum (with painted ornaments). 

„ 2. Jonic capital from the Erechtheium on the Acropolis of y\thens. 

,, 3. Corinthian capital from the Choragic Monument of Lysicrates at y\thens. 

„ 4. Caryatide from the Erechtheium. 

„ 5 and 6. Acroteria from stelae (sepulchral columns), Paris. 

„ 7 — 9. Anthemia-decorations. 

„ 10 and ]i. Griffins. Fragments of freezes. 

„ 12 and 13. Legs of marble-tables in the National Museum at Naples. 

„ 15 and 16. „ „ in the British Museum at London. 



ASSYRIAN. 




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ORNAMENTAL ARCHITECTURE AND SCULPTURE. 



Plate 5. 

GREEK. 

POLYCHROME ARCHITECTURE. 



Ila 



late 5 shows a number of remains of polychrome (many-coloured) mouldings. These forms are in 
general the same conventional ones as we find in plastic ornament and likewise in the decorations of 
vases on Plate 6. (Meanders, heart-shaped leaves, ovolos, palmettes, anthemia-decorations etc.) It cannot 
now be questioned, that formerly colour was used in architecture; in fact, as the plastic ornaments were 
not seldom treated in a very flat way, they could hardly do without polychromy for producing an effect 
at long distances. 




Fig. I. Polychrome cyma (ogee) with lion's head from Selinus. 
„ 2. Acroterium from the temple of Nike Apteros. 
,, 3 — 6. Painted cornices from the Propylaca. Athens. 
„ 7. Ornament of an antae-capital from the temple of Theseus. Athens. 
„ 8. Ornament from a temple at Selinus. 

,, 9. Frieze of the temple of Jupiter at Aegina. 

„ 10. Cyma-ornament from the Parthenon. 

„ II. Ornament, found at Palazzolo. 

„ 12 and 13. Meanders. 

„ 14. Decoration of cassettes. London. 

„ 15. Panel of metopes of baked clay, found at Palazzolo. 

„ 16. Panel of cassettes from the Propylaea. 



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Plate 6. 



GREEK. 



POTTERY. 



It was the Greeks, who raised pottery to a free art. Whereas in Egypt the labourers, a contempted 
caste, were charged with making the earthenware goods, which certainly were onl}^ used for domestic pur- 
poses or as a cheap substitute for precious vessels, the Greek potters, on the contrary, were so highly 
estimated that medals were stamped and monuments erected in their honour. 

Vessels formed by hand, with plastic decorations, are very rare with the Greeks. The introduction 
of the potters wheel, already mentioned by Homer, took place in prehistoric times. Proofs of this kind 
of fabrication have also been found in the ruins of ancient Mycenae. 

The oldest Greek vases are most simply decorated; on a light (white or yellowish) ground colour 
of clay brown bands, circles, squares etc. used to be painted. But soon they appear also with friezes, 
decorated with figures of animals 

Subsequently figural representations, treated after a scheme, appear between bands: undulating lines, 
heart-shapes and laurel-leaves, meanders etc. but, as before, dark on a light ground with frequent employ- 
ment of white. 

In the zenith of Greek ceramique art the colouring of the ground and of the ornamental and figural 
representations underwent a change. The orange colour of the clay was spared, the back ground filled 
with black. The figures, drawn with the brush, show much firmness and a noble elegance. Fig. lo. 

Then followed a polychrome period which, without doubt, must be called the decay of Greek pottery. 
I'he colours now were used in larger masses, especially light-yellow, gold-yellow, blue, violet, even gold. 



I 




Fig. I — 9. Forms of Greek vases. 

„ I. Amphora, vessel for oil, wine etc. 

„ 2. Hydria, vessel for carrying water. 

„ 3. Urn, a cinerary vessel. 

„ 4. Oenochoe, wine-can, pouring-vessel. 

„ 5. Cylix, drinking-cup. 

„ 6. Deinos, crater, vessel for mixing wine and water. 

„ 7. Lecythus, vessel for anointing-oil. 

„ 8. Cantharus, two-handled drinking-cup. 

„ 9. Rhyton, drinking-vessel. 
Fig. 10. Female figure on an Amphora in the National Museum at Naples. 
Fig. 11—32. Ornaments on vases in the Museums of Naples, Rome, Munich, Paris and London. 



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POTTERY. 



Plate 7. 

ROMAN. 

ORNAMENTAL ARCHITECTURE and SCULPTURE. 



T, 



.he Romans, for want of artistic talent of their own, seemed decidedly dependent on Etruscan, especially 
Grecian art ; but instead of the classical pureness of forms we frequently meet here with an exaggerated 
decorative treatment. 

In accordance with their love for pomp and splendour the Romans had a predilection for the 
Corinthian order, the capital of which they sometimes elaborated with very fine artistic feeling, for instance 
in the Pantheon at Rome, Fig. i; whereas the form of the so-called Composite capital. Fig. 3, exhibits, 
on the contrary, a mechanical mixture of the Corinthian and Ionic styles. — An abundance of other Corin- 
thian-like capitals, which we shall meet again in the Renaissance period, with dolphins, winged horses etc., 
in the place of volutes, prove the extravagant imagination of their inventors. 

In Roman ornament the different forms of leaves often are idealised in such a rigid manner, that 
their natural origin is hardly to be recognized. Most frequently employed was the acanthus-leaf, but with 
its rounded points and fuller forms it appears much less fine and delicate than in Grecian art. Besides 
this we find oak-leaves, laurel, pine apples, vine-leaves, palm, ivy, aloe, convolvulus, cornear, poppy etc. 
alternately in bold execution, enlivened by a rich display of flowers, fruits and figural decorations. 



Fig. I. Corinthian capital from the Pantheon at Rome. 
„ 2. Head of a candelabrum from the Vatican Museum. 
„ 3. Composite capital from a temple of Juno at Rome. 
„ 4. Fragment of a frieze, found in the Villa of Hadrian at Tivoli, now in the Lateran Museum 

at Rome. 
„ 5 and 7. Rosettes from the Vatican Museum. 
„ 6. Fragment of a frieze from Rome. 

„ Sand II. Rases of columns from the later Roman period. 
„ 9 and 10. Members of cornices from the ruins of the Imperial palaces on the Palatine. 



-■^.♦♦••— 



Plate 8. 



ROMAN. 

MOSAIC FLOORS. 



M< 



-osaic-work probably has its home in the East. This technical branch, considerably improved by the 
Greeks, was carried at last to the culminating point of perfection by the llomans, who produced not only 
geometrical mosaic-work, as we observe in so many floors excavated at Pompeii, but also flowers, animals, 
still-life, human and divine beings, even complete pictures, the latter being probably, for the most part, 
imitations of Greek originals no more existing. 

Regarding the material, stones of different colours were generally employed, chiefly marble (seldom 
glass-pastes). In mosaic floors made of plates, Fig. 2 and 3, there is a great variety in the forms of the 
plates, whereas in mosaic proper, little stones, embedded in beton, were arranged into interesting carpet- 
patterns or figural representations, Fig. i and 4—10. Mosaics of this kind were also applied to walls 
and vaults. 

In a later period motives like that on Plate 5, Fig. 13, with a tendency to relief-like appearance, 
were frequently used for floors, proving, that the taste of that period was already decaying. 



Fig. I. Mosaic frieze in the house of the Faun at Pompeii. 

„ 2 and 3. Patterns of plate-mosaic in the Palatine Museum at Rome (drawn liy H. Dolmeisch) 

„ 4 and 5. Mosaic floors from the Hunting Villa at Fliessem near Treves. 

„ 6 and 7. Mosaic floors from Pompeii (drawn by II. Dolmeisch). 

„ 8, 9 and 10. The same from the Thermae of Caracalla at Rome (drawn liy II. I)nlmets(-h). 




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ORNAMENTAL ARCHITECTURE AND SCULPTURE 



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Plate 9. 



POMPEIAN. 



WALLPAINTING and POLYCHROME BASSO RELIEVOS. 



^ 



Ihe 



.he wallpaintings found at Pompeii, Hcrculaneum and Stabiae as well as at Rome, serving in the first 
place for decorative purposes only, can give us an idea of the lost Grecian painting; for probably most of 
them are reproductions of originals of Greek masters, although they are executed in a free-hand manner 
and impressed with the splendour-loving spirit of the Romans. — These pictures are usually painted al 
fresco in cheerful colours by mere artisans, but with admirable artistic feeling and bold mastership. 

The apartments of the Pompeian houses are all without windows ; the walls, being covered with 
lofty architectural designs, suggest the idea of increased size of the room. They are divided into a dado, 
a middle and an upper compartment The dado generally, has a black ground with simple ornaments or 
linear decorations; the purple, green, blue or yellow ground of the middle space is enlivened with one or 
more figures, landscapes etc., between pretty ornamental borders. The upper space is mostly white, enlivened 
with graceful scenes in various colours. There are, however, apartments, the walls of which begin with 
yellow dados and terminate with black friezes. Besides very rich arabesques, there are garlands, fruit, 
masks, candelabrums, animals, suspended arms etc. which, imitating nature with great fidelity, arrest the 
eyes of the beholder. — The most favourite plants were ivy and vine-branches, laurel, myrtle, cypress, 
olive and palm. 

The walls always used to terminate at the top in a small painted stucco-cornice, from which the 
ceiling rose. The latter, frequently vaulted, was decorated with graceful variegated linear-ornaments on a 
light-coloured ground, or, often, with coloured stucco. 



F 



Fig. I. Wallpainting, representing a figure of Victory, from Pompeii. 

„ 2 and 3. Candelabrums, from the same place, in the Museum at Naples. 

„ 4 and 5. Borders from Pompeii. 

„ 6. P'rieze at the same place (drawn by 11. Dolmcisch). 

„ 712. Borders from Merculaneum and Pompeii. 

„ 13 and 14. Painted dados from Pompeii. 

,, 15-20. Cornices, executed in stucco and painted, at the same place (drawn by II. Dolmctsch). 



Plate lo. 



POMPEIAN. 



BRONZE. 



J. he National Museum at Naples as well as the collections at Florence and other places in Italy atlbrd 
a full survey of the smaller works of art and industry produced by the ancients. Contemplating the 
bronzes, down to the meanest objects for daily use, we are filled with high admiration for their noble and 
beautifully balanced shapes which interfere not at all with their practical usefulness. 

There are candelabrums, lamps, little lamp-stands, most of them in tripod-form, vases, utensils for 
cooking, eating and drinking, in which the free and vigorous form of the profile, of the neck, but especially 
of the handles and ears was carried to great perfection; there are couches, coal-pans, theatrical masks, 
armatures and many other objects, all of which emit, as it were, the fresh breath of Grecian beauty, equally 
manifest in that wise moderation almost throughout observable. 

The bronze statuettes are composed, as a rule, of several separately cast pieces, and many of them, on 
account of their highly artistic form, may fairly be reckoned among the best productions of the ancient world. 



Fig. I. Fountain-figure, representing a drunken Faun. One of the bronze figures, found at Pompeii 
(1880) and belonging to the most excellent works of this kind. 

„ 2 and 3. Two lamps (lucerna), in the Museum at Naples. 

„ 4 and 5. Great candelabrums, in the Collection of the Louvre at Paris. 

„ 6 and 8. „ „ in the Museum at Naples. 

„ 7. Side-view of the head of the candelabrum Fig. 6 (magnified). 

„ 9. Candelabrum-head, at Naples. 

„ 10. Two-armed small candelabrum with figure of a Faun, at Naples. 

„ II. Bisellium, seat of honour for magistrates, beautifully profiled, in the Louvre at Paris. 

„ 12 and 13. Tripods from Herculaneum, in the Museum at Naples. 

„ 14 and 15. Little masks, being fragments of decorations, at Naples. 



POMPETAN 




Priuted by M. Seeger, Stuttgurt 



WALLPAINTING AND POLYCHROME BASSO-RELIEVOS 



POMPEIAN 



10 




Printed by E. HocLdanz, StuHgart. 



BRONZE 



Plate II. 

CHINESE. 

PAINTING. 



I 



n very early times the Chinese had already attained a considerably high degree of perfection in the 
art of decoration. But they did not go beyond that point, and for many centuries their system of ornamen- 
tation shows no progress at all, without mentioning that their modern productions are mere imitations of 
ancient subjects, often calculated to deceive. 

Most remarkable however are their painted porcelain vases. They are generally bounded with borders, 
among which the meander pattern in various forms predominates. Fig. 9, 10, 11, and the upper part of 
Fig. 4 represent some of the few conventionally treated examples of such borders. On the faces of these 
vases we find geometrical patterns, as well as flowers, fruit and every kind of plants, some of them grace- 
fully idealizing the forms of nature, others, copying them with anxious minuteness. All these ornaments 
cover the vases either in continuity, or, more frequently, they are irregularly and capriciously scattered 
over them, sometimes still enlivened by human figures and animals. The principal native plants used for 
decorative patterns are the leaves and flowers of the tea-shrub, roses, camellias, melons etc. 

Finally the wliole receives a splendid impression from the peculiar, not yet attained brilliancy of 
the Chinese porcelain-enamel, the colour of which is not a pure white, as in our representation, but always 
somewhat greenish. 



Fig. I — 5 and 9 — 13 borders; Fig 6 — 8 continuous patterns of painted China vases, the greater 

part of which are to be found in South Kensington Museum. 
In Fig. I an inclination towards Persian manner is to be observed in composition and character. 
The yellow colour, used in Fig. 4, 6 and 10, is gold on the original objects. 



Plate 12. 



CHINESE. 

PAINTING. WEAVING, EMBROIDERY and 'feMAIL 

CLOISONNE'. 



T, 



he above mentioned fantastical mixture of patterns is characteristic of Chinese painting, although this^ 
peculiarity is somewhat covered by the great richness and successful combination of colours. In special 
favour are black, white, blue, red and gold outlines, by which the design is more prominently and beauti- 
fully relieved from the light or dark ground. 

All we have said hitherto is likewise applicable in its full extent to Chinese silk-weaving and 
embroidery. It is well known that silk manufacture in China had reached a high degree of perfection 
long before the Christian era, but it may be less known that the gold-threads employed in Chinese weaving 
and embroidery most probably consisted of silk-threads covered with gilt-paper or caoutchouc-mass. 

Most renowned, too, are the vases and dishes ornamented with so-called 'email cloisonne'. Where 
this kind of enamelling was first invented, has up to now not been ascertained ; the use of it by the Chinese 
is, however, of a very old date. 

The process of making cloisonne work is as follows : — After the intended design has been traced 
upon the metal ground intended to be enamelled, the separate figures of the pattern are bordered by thin 
wire of gold or copper-alloy soldered to the metal-plate. The 'cloisons' so formed are then filled in with 
enamel of corresponding colour which is welded on in the furnace. When cool, the whole surface is 
polished smooth. Here too recur the same motives as in painting etc. 

Fig. lo shows, executed in this manner, the often -varied Imperial emblem of China, the primeval 
dragon (compare Fig. 6). According to a Chinese idea, man once developed out of the imperfect state of 
a dragon. 

Fig. I. Conventional representations of fruit and flowers painted on porcelain. 
„ 2. Painted border from a China vessel. 
„ 3, Painting from a little wooden chest. 

„ 4, 5 and 6. Portions of bed-curtains embroidered in silk and gold i'K\. century). 
„ 7, 8 and 9. Patterns from woven stuffs. 

„ 10 and II. Portions of an old China copper-vase executed in 'email cloisonne'. 

„ 12 — 23. Ornaments on vases, bowls and censers executed in 'email cloisonne'. 



-««««+. ^^ 



CHINESE 



11 






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PAINTING 



CHINESE 




Printed by E. Hoclidanz, Stultgaii, 



PAINTING, WEAVING, EMBROIDERY AND ENAMEL 



Plate 13. 



JAPAN. 



LACKER -PAINTING. 



Concerning the relation of Chinese to Japanese .art compare tlie letterpress to Plate 14. 



o. 



"f all productions of Japanese art, lacker-ware has attained a high and well-deserved celebrity long 
since; for this work shows an unrivalled technical perfection resulting from a traditional mainifactin-c 
transmitted in the course of centuries from generation to generation within certain families. It is to the 
separation of the castes and guilds in Japan and China, that this more and more increasing perfection of 
artistic manufacture is to be ascribed. 

Whereas the Chinese in ornamenting their lacker-ware employ, almost throughout, types from 
nature, the Japanese more frequently use geometrical or mere linear ornaments. But here as well as in 
other branches we often notice that apprehension of a systematical arrangement of the ornaments we 
have already mentioned when speaking of the Chinese. (Compare Fig. i — 8, 11, 12, 14, 20 and 21, 22 
and 23 ; Plate 14, Fig. 10). 

The style as well as the extremely complicated process of lacker-painting have remained unaltered 
up to now. The ground -material, consisting according to the intended purpose either of wood, layers of 
paper, papier-mache or plaited bast, after being smoothed on the surface by means of resin, is covered 
with as many coats of lacker, as the intended fineness of the articles requires. The most precious objects 
get sometimes as many as twenty such lacker-coatings and the necessary manipulations require a great 
deal of time and trouble. Sometimes mother-of-pearl or ivory is inlaid for decoration, but the most 
common practise is gilding, either by painting the gold afresh on the ornament with every new lacker- 
coat (hence an appearance of relief), or so, that the gilding, done but once, shines through the upper 
coat of the transparent lacker. 

Lacker is supplied by nature as a ready product from the sap of a tree in different qualities, 
viz. yellow, brown and light yellow, the colour of the latter being soon changed in deep black with 
exposure to the air. 



Fig. I — 50. Motives for lacker-painting. 



Plate 14. 



JAPAN. 

WEAVING, PAINTING AND 'EMAIL CLOISONNE'. 



I 



t is hardly possible to point out exactly the characteristics which distinguish Chinese and Japanese 
productions of art from each other, an active commercial intercourse and an exchange of the successive 
acquirements and progress in industrial art having been kept up between both countries for ages, the 
result of this mutual teaching and learning being a uniformity of taste as well as of technical prac- 
tises with both nations. That the latter reached a high point of perfection in these two countries, we 
have already remarked, but just in consequence of this utmost strain of technical skillfulness the intel- 
lectual element has been checked and the individual genius of the artists suppressed in China as well as, 
with some restriction, in Japan. 

Although what we have said above in reference to the Plates 11 and 12 applies equally to Japanese 
art in general, it must be observed, that in our days, this art seems to revive with fresh vigor, ex- 
celling as it always did in a more regular style of ornamentation, in a closer observation of nature and 
a more individual freedom of design. 

The Japanese got the advantage over the Chinese of applying cloisonne work, as a novelty, to 
porcelain vases. In this technical manipulation, (never yet succeeded in by Europeans,) the metal wires are 
fixed on the objects by means of enamel of high fusibility, after the glaze has been removed from the 
parts concerned. The further proceeding is the same as we have described with Plate 12. 

It is a remarkable fact, that, although the Chinese had taught the Japanese porcelain-manufacture, 
yet the latter nation was early renowned for having far surpassed its masters, not only in quality and 
fineness of its productions, but also in regard of their enormous size. This superiority applies to painted 
dishes and vases as well as to those colossal articles, which, being covered all over with 'email cloisonne', 
exhibit in their deep and sad colouring a wonderful magnificence and harmonj'. 



Fig. I — 7- Borders and patterns from silk stuffs. 
,, 8 and 9. Paintings from an old porcelain-vase. 
„ 10. Painting from an old cup-shaped vase. 
„ II and 12. Borders from two fayence-vases. 
11 13 — 19' Ornaments from enamelled vases (16, 17 and ig arc modern) 



JAPAN 



13 




Priuted by E. Hoclidanz, Stuttgart 



LACKER -PAINTING 



JAPAN 



14 








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Pi'iuted by M. Seeger, Stuttgart. 



WEAVING, PAINTING AND ENAMEL 



Plate 15. 

INDIAN. 

METAL WORK. 



Compare also the letterpress to Plate i5. 

_Lhe manufacture of decorated arms and metal ware was at all times an important branch of the Indian 
industrial art, and we have due cause to be astonished at the refinement of taste combined with the 
highest magnificence of ornamentation. 

Damascene work, specially exemplified on our plate, is executed in steel, iron or tin-alloy, in 
the latter case the design being brought out in deep black by the agency of sulphur. 

The damascened ornaments are made in silver- and gold-foil, fixed on either by pressure or 
hammering to the metal ground, which has previously been slightly engraved, after which the whole is 
polished with the burnisher. 



Fig. I. Tin-vessel with damascened ornaments. 

,, 2. Battle-axe with etched decorations. 

,, 3. Battle-axe with damascene work. 

„ 4. Shield of rhinoceros-skin inlaid and mounted with metal. 

,. 5 — 8. Ornaments from damascened Huhkas (water-pipes). 

„ 9. Belly-decoration, executed "en repousse", of a gilt copper-can. 

„ 10. Belly-decoration from a copper-can in repousse work. 

„ II. Decoration from a damascened tin-vase. 

„ 12. Damascene work on steel on a dagger-sheath. 

„ 13. Neck-decoration on a damascened tin-cup. 

„ 14. From a copper-plate in repousse work. 

„ 15. From a tin-plate in repousse work. 

Fig. 2, 9, 10, 12 — 15 drawn after original objects from the Royal "Landesgewerbemuseum" at Stuttgart. 
„ I. 5 — 8 and 11 drawn after original objects belonging to Mr. Paul Stotz, manufacturer at Stuttgart. 




Plate 1 6. 



INDIAN. ^ 

EMBROIDERY, WEAVING, PLAITING and LACQUERVVORK. 



I 



ndia, that country full of luxurious vegetation, rich in natural products of every kind, with inexhaustible 
mines of precious metals and stones, displays her character of overflowing abundance and the fantastic 
spirit of her inhabitants also in the productions of her art. But notwithstanding her old and comparatively 
high civilisation, a certain conservatism, extending for nearly a thousand years to the social and religious 
conditions and institutions, exercised, as a matter of course, its unavoidable influence also on the artistic 
productions, especially when you look on the caste-like separation of the several trades. Only since the 
beginning of our century can we report new introductions in the Indian art. 

Being little conventional and flowing freely, Indian ornament seems to have the greatest affinity 
with the Persian style. The surface decoration, never losing its specific character, mostly exhibits a very 
profuse richness of recurring motives, and a grand splendour of colouring which, far from harassing the 
eyes of the beholder, affords, on the contrary, a salutary repose to them. The outlines of the design, 
in which all modelling is avoided, are generally executed on light ground in deeper colours than the 
pattern itself, and on dark ground in light colours. The Indians found their principal motives, as seems 
most likely, among their native plants, employing in the first place lotus, excellently drav/n roses, pinks, 
granates, etc.; but most frequently, especially in modern productions, we meet with the palm-branch 
always treated conventionally (Fig. ii and Plate 15, Fig. 9, 15; Plate 17, Fig. 23, 28 and 29). 

In consequence of British competition, the art of weaving, formerly brought to the highest perfec- 
tion, s now decaying; also in modern silk embroidery the former quiet harmony is frequently disturbed by 
using the too vivid aniline colours. But the Cashmere shawls, being celebrated for ages all over the 
world, will still keep their renown for a long time owing to their unrivalled fineness and delicacy and to 
their magnificent colours. Many-coloured cotton carpets (Fig. 8. and 9), the striped design of which is 
excellently fitted to the stuff", are widely spread as a cheap substitute for woolen carpets. — The plaited 
mats too are well worthy of our attention, as regards their colour and design (Fig. 10.) 

Indian lacquerwork, when compared with the Chinese and Japanese, is somewhat less finished, as 
regards technical perfection, and it differs from them in this essential point, that the lacquer serves only, 
as it were, to preserve the gilt or polychrome ornaments. 



Fig. I. Embroidered carpet of the i6th century. 

„ 2 — 6. Borders from silk-embroideries. 

„ 7. Pattern embroidered in silk. 

„ 8 and 9. Cotton carpets. 

„ 10. Mat of plaited rushes. 

„ II and 12. Border patterns of Cashmere shawls. 

„ 13. Painted lacquerwork. 



INDIAN 



15 




Printed by E. Hoclidanz, Stultgart 



METAL WORK 



INDIAN 



16 




Pi-iiited by M. Seeger, Sluttgur'- 



EMBROIDERY, WEAVING, PLAITING AND LACKERWORK 




Table i6A. 

INDIAN. 

INLAYS IN MARBLE. 



I 



f we cast a glance at old Indian Architecture, we are at once struck by the unmistakeable character 
of an exceedingly varied and complex style, which however may very likely be traced back to ages long 
gone by. Even the most ancient monuments of India consisted of stucco-work richly embellished with 
sculpture, mosaics and colors whose technics naturally favored the display of a pompous richness. This 
same over-loading was later on extended also to rock-and quarry-stone buildings and thus the places of 
worship as well as the Palaces of India present a bewildering diversity and phantastical oddities. A hund- 
redfold repetition of idol's pictures or long rows of lions and elephants, phantastic and colossal figures of 
men supporting, caryatide-like, the projecting cornices, all sorts of mythological representations, descriptions 
of battles and victories with a motley crowd of inscriptions between. 

The characteristics on the forms of the columns, pillars and pilasters which are worked out with 
infinite variation, are the continually recurring change from the angular to the circular form, the frequent 
cording with narrow bands and the bulging out of the capitals. On these latter arises, console-like, a 
broadly projecting flag-stone, resembling a wooden structure, which very often supports a reposing lion, 
the symbol of Buddha. (See tabic 15, fig. 16 and table 16 fig. 15.) In later periods, after Arabian influence 
had introduced the Mahommedan style also into India, a peculiar grandeur became observable on the buil- 
dings and this, with the help of curved and pointed arches forming arcades as also the introduction of 
mighty cupolas presents internally and externally a new feature, which frequently culminates in a truly 
extravagant splendor. This period had its climax in the XVI and the first half of the XVIII century. It 
is to the first-named epoch that the marble-marquetries from the Mogul tombs at Agra belong, which are 
sketched on the table above-referred to. These artistically furnished mausoleums were built with white 
marble, whilst all prominent architectural parts of the structure were ornamented with manifold colored 
stones, such as jasper, heliotrope, chalcedony, agate etc. Every curved line, every closed bud and opening 
flower we find represented with a sweet regard to the beauties of nature and besides this all is in thorough 
harmony with those venerable mosaic technics. 




Fig. 10. 

Fig. I to 9. Marble marquetry from the mausoleums af the Shah Jehan 
and the Begum Mumtaz-i-Mahal. 
„ 10. Filigree Panel of red sandstone, at Fathepore-Sikri. 

Taken from ..Portfolio of Indian Art and the Journal of Indian Art." 



INDIAN 



16a 



■.■v>^'>sar..-SK^ 




Printed by E. Hochdauz, Stuttgart. 



INLAYS IN MARBLE 



Plate 17. 

INDIAN. 

METAL WORK, EMBROIDERY, WEAVING and PAINTING. 



I 



A, 



.rtistically employed, especially in goldsmiths' work, was the so-called "email champleve". The parts 
intended to be enamelled on the metal, were deepened with the burin, narrow rims being left to separate 
the several compartments. The further process is nearly the same as we have described when speaking 
of "email cloisonne". — A brilliant specimen of that work may be seen in Fig. 4, representing an ancus 
(instrument used to drive and train elephants). 

We often meet with illumination in India, betraying however Persian influence and applied to old 
royal edicts, documents and other manuscripts of religious and poetical contents. 



Fig. I. Ancus in chiselled iron. 
,, 2 and 3. Pendants and button embossed in gold and chiselled. 
„ 4. Ancus, enamelled and adorned with jewels. 
„ 5 — 9. Decorations from enamelled arms. 
„ 10. State parasol with rich gold embroidery. 
„ II — 13. Embroidered fans. 

„ 14. Covering for the foot, woven in gold and embroidered in silk and pearls. 
„ 15. Embroidered table-cover. 
„ 16. Border from a saddle-cloth. 
„ 17. Embroidery on black stuff. 
„ 18. Border from an embroidered velvet-carpet. 
„ 19 — 22. Flowers from silk embroidery. 
„ 23. Woven shawl. 
„ 24. Border from woven stuff. 

,,25 and 26. Patterns from silk- and gold-weavings. 
„ 27. Lacquerpainting. 

„ 28. Portion of a book-cover in lacquerpainting. 
„ 29 and 30. From illuminated manuscripts. 



Plate 1 8. 



PERSIAN. 



ARCHITECTURE. 



^ 



A 



great number of monumental buildings, although more or less dilapidated, conveys to the present 
day an idea of the fairy-like magnificence of the ancient empire of the Caliphs, as well as of the gorgeous 
palaces and mosques of Persia. Especially in Ispahan, her former capital, a series of examples still proves 
how well the Persians understood to give a rich appearance to their edifices by employing glazed tiles 
either variegated or painted. Almost all the domes of the mosques, chiefly pear or bulb -shaped, 
and the points of the minarets, as well as their walls and, in short, nearly all parts of these buildings 
are covered with such tiles. (Fig. i, 6, 7, 10, 11.) 

This rich polychrome ornamentation, so abundantly used, is not less characteristic of the Persian 
architecture, when compared with any other Mohamedan, than the peculiar mode of decoration. The 
latter shows much less variety in combining geometrical ornaments (Fig. 11), than we find with the Arabs 
and Moors, and in the floral ornament, though conventionally treated, there still prevails an attempt at 
the imitation of nature, the rich vegetation of the country offering a great variety of subjects. ScroIl-worI< 
and flowers are either separately distributed over the surfaces, or interspersed between the linear ornaments. 

An interesting feature is the frequently occurring pierced stone window-frames, the open spaces 
being filled in with painted glass (Fig. 8 and 15). 

We may mention here, also as worthy of notice, the so-called stalactite vaults (Fig. 14) composed 
of small vaultings projecting one above the other. 



I 



Fig. r. Upper part of a minaret from the mosque Mesdjid-i-Chah. 
„ 2 — 5. Bases and capitals of columns. 

„ 6. Wall-border from the portal building of the mosque Mesdjid-i-Chah. 
„ 7. Decorated cavetto from the same. 
„ 8. Pierced stone window-frame (belonging to Fig. 12). 
„ 9. Wall-border. 

„ 10 and II. Spandrels from the College Medresseh-Maderi-Chah-Sultan-Hussein. 
„ 12. Pierced stone window-arch (the dotted ground means stained glass). 
„ 13. Entablature from the Pavilion Tchehel-Soutoun. 
„ 14. Stalactite vault from the Pavilion of the eight Paradise-gates. 
„ 15 — 17- Divers dome-points. 

The whole from Ispahan. 



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INDIAN 



17 


























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METAL WORK, EMBROIDERY, WEAVING AND PAINTING 



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PERSIAN 



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Plate 19. 

PERSIAN. 

POTTERY. 



I 



T.. 



.he beautiful fayence ware produced by Persian industry was at all times a considerable article of 
export. In all countries professing Islam the productions of this very early and highly developed industry 
are found clown to the present time. 

After having remarked with regard to Plate 18, the dazzling manner in which the Persians decorated 
the exterior of their buildings with tiles, we must especially record here their tastefully coloured dishes, 
of which Plate 19 gives some examples. 

Both the invariably flat treatment of the ornament and the prevalence of the natural imitation of 
flowers constitute the characteristic style of Persian decoration. 



Fig. I — 5. Ancient Persian fayence plates in the Musee Cluny at Paris. 
„ 6 and 7. Borders from walls wainscoted with fayence. 

Fig. 3. After an original drawing bei C. Bauer from the "Kunstbibliothek der Kgl. Centralstelle 
fiir Gewerbe und Handel" at Stuttgart. 



i 



Plate 20. 



PERSIAN. 



WEAVING AND ILLUMINATION. 



I 



n pottery as well as in weaving and illumination, we find the use of secondary and tertiary colours 
predominating, which being mostly in complete harmony with each other and the ground colour, produce 
a certain delicacy and brightness of coloration, which distinguishes all those objects. 

Owing to these circumstances the Persian carpets covered with flowers and in many cases 
enlivened with animals and birds, and the delicately painted Koran-manuscripts are widely dispersed and 
much in favour throughout the East. But on account of the masses being rather unevenly distributed 
over the surfaces, the productions of Persian art are considered somewhat inferior to those of the Arabs 
and Moors. 

In Fig. I. we see almost all flowers conventionally treated, and in Fig. 3. the large leaves idealised 
in a manner quite usual with the Arabs (compare also Plate 19, Fig. i.). 



Fig. I. Persian carpet, 16'*'- century. 
„ 2. Motives for weaving from an old Persian book of ornaments in the Museum of Orna- 
mental Art at London. 
„ 3. Illumination from a Koran. 



PERSIAN 



19 




Printed by E. Hochdanz, Stuttgart. 



POTTERY 



PERSIAN 



20 




[■tiuli-d by E. Iloulidanz, Slullgart. 



WEAVING AND ILLUMINATION 



Plate 2 I . 

PERSIAN. 

METAL WORK. 



I 



n all ages weapons, armature and metal vessels of Persian origin were highly estimated in the East as 
well as in Western countries up to the present day. Being decorated with excellent Damascene work or 
beautifully embossed, they exhibit in their ornaments the above-described features of the Persian style in 
perpetual variation. Moreover we are struck by Persian characters expressing proverbs or religious sen- 
tences (Fig. I and 2 and Plate i8. Fig. i). Animals and human figures are likewise represented in some- 
times fantastical imitations (Fig. i, 2 and 3). 



Fig. I and 2. Helm with shield belonging to it. 

„ 3. Border from an armature. 

„ 4 — 8. Decorations on metal vessels. 

., 9— 12. Portions of eating-utensils. 

fig. I — 8 drawn after original objects from the Royal 'Landesgewerbemuseum' at Stuttgart. 



Plate 2 2. 



PERSIAN-ARABIAN. 



WAINSCOT IN GLAZED CLAY. 




V^ur Plate represents a wainscot of the XVL century in the mosque of Ibrahim Aga at Cairo, 
exempHfying a mixture of the Persian and Arabian styles , inasmuch as the predominance of vegetable 
ornamentation directly points at Persian influence. 



^ 4** — •■— 




PERSIAN. 



21 




Printed by Max Seegei-, Stuttgart. 



METAL WORK. 



ARABIAN 



'i2 




Priuted by M. tjeeger, Stuttgart. 



WAINSCOT IN GLAZED CLAY 



Plate 23. 

ARABIAN, 

WEAVING, EMBROIDERY and PAINTING. 



H= 



lardly 250 years had elapsed since the establishment of Islam through Mahomet, when the Arabs had 
already developed a style of their own, which, though frequently following Persian, Roman and Byzantine 
examples, yet possesses its peculiar features. This is especially the case in their style of decoration, 
which perfectly demonstrates their artistic talent being identical with their nature and feeling. 

A simple imitation of real beings could not be in accordance either with their boundless lavish 
imagination or with their character, imbued with poetry; representations of men or animals are therefore 
of comparatively rare occurrence, although images are not actually forbidden by the Koran, as is pretended. 
The Arabian artists, however, found full satisfaction in that pompous ornamentation which, most extensively 
employed in all branches of their artistic performances, engages both the eye and the intellect. They 
created in changeful play an abundance of rich combinations of lines, called Arabesques after their in- 
ventors, the Arabs, consisting either of figures geometrically constructed or of foliage rigidly idealised. 
In such intertwisted scroll work, exhibiting its finest forms in ingenious rosettes and stars, the principle 
prevails, that each scroll and each leaf is always traceable to its root and parent stem. Brilliant colours 
serve more especially to disentangle the seemingly insoluble intricacy, and to diffuse a quiet harmony 
over the decorated surface. 

The curved points of the leaves are a specific characteristic of such Arabian foliage (Fig. 3). 

The Arabs seem also to have first introduced those ingenious patterns, of which we see a specimen 
in the midst of Fig. 2, where two similar figures, lying in an opposite direction, are produced by one 
single line. 

Finally the upper part of Fig. i may serve as an example of the ornamental adaptation of writing, 
as it was not at all rare with the Arabs. 



Fig. I. Woven carpet of the XIV. century, preserved in the church at Nivelles. 
„ 2. Embroidered Applique work of the XVIII. century. 

3. A portion of the richly painted ceiling of the mosque el Bordeyny at Cairo. 



Plate 24. 



ARABIAN. 



ORNAMENTS in WOOD and METAL. 



T 



.0 prevent looking in from the outside without hindering a free look-out, the window-openings facing 
the street were furnished with wooden lattices, shaped by art in a very elegant manner (Fig. 2 and 3). 
Especially, however, the inventive ingenuity of Arabian art-workmen was engaged in decorating the doors. 
Fig. I for instance presents us a panel of a richly carved and chiselled door, whilst in Fig. 5 — 15 
a great selection of bronze door fittings will be found, the latter being applied so as either to form the 
ornament itself, or so that the parts of the wood uncovered by the metal, bring out the pattern. Fig. 4 
is an escutcheon executed in bronze, and occurring also on many Arabian coins. 




ARABIAN. 



23 



1 




Printud by E. Hochdanx, Stuttgart. 



WEAVING, EMBROIDERY AND PAINTING. 



ARABIAN. 




n 



Priuted by Huftmann, Stuttgart. 



ORNAMENTS IN WOOD AND METAL. 



/; 



Plate 25. 

ARABIAN. 

ILLUMINATION OF MANUSCRIPTS. 



Li 



likewise in their paintings on parchment the Arabian artists show special skill in surface decoration. 
Scroll work, rigidly idealised, alternates with geometrical figures, or else the arabesque ornament fills the 
compartments formed by the lines and bands. In this manner whole pages are painted in many Koran 
manuscripts, from which Fig. 4 and 5 give us four specimens of coloured motives of this rich mode of 
treatment. — The writing itself is in most cases bordered and surrounded with rosettes and freezes, which 
are filled in with ever new combinations of lines and foliage. 

The splendid and at the same time harmonious effect of this illumination arises principally from 
the exquisite arrangement of the colours, the brilliancy of which is still enhanced by a profuse employ- 
ment of gold. 

A glance at Fig. 6 with its many-coloured flowers might induce us to suppose Persian or Indian 
influence, and Romanesque in Fig. 8 and 9; everywhere, however, we see the curved or involuted points 
of the leaves which characterize the art of the Arabs and Moors. 



Fig. I. Decoration from an Arabian Koran XIV. century. 

„ 2 and 3. Decorations from an Arabian Koran XVI. „ 

„ 4 and 5. „ „ a Moorish „ XVIII. „ 

„ 6 and 7. „ „ an Arabian „ XVI. 

„ 8— 10. „ „ „ „ „ XVII. „ 

„ u and 12. „ „ a Moorish „ XVIII. „ 



Plate 26. 



ARABIAN-MORESQUE. 



ARCHITECTONIC ORNAMENTS. 



A, 



.rabian and Moorish architecture is of importance for us on account of some of their mouldings being 
entirely covered with ornaments, sometimes magnificently gilded and painted. Freezes and cornices received 
their particular adornment by pinnacles, either simply and plainly treated (Fig. 11 and 12), or richly 
decorated (Fig. 13 — 15). 

The columns at first followed Egyptian and Byzantine examples or were, in fact, composed of parts 
of Greek or Roman columns; later on however (since about the 12th. century) they were formed in a 
style of their own, the capital consisting mainly of a cube decorated with foliage and scroll work (Fig. 6 
and Plate 28, Fig. i). 

A most artistic treatment is exhibited especially in vaults and portions of vaults composed of 
more or less gorgeous stalactites. 

Fig. I represents a wall decoration executed in plaster and low-relief and in many cases coloured. 
Here we meet the so-called Arabian feather, so very frequently employed, especially in the Alhambra 
(compare Fig. 13; Plate 24, Fig. 4, 7, 11 ; Plate 28, iMg. 2, 6, 7, 9, 10). 



Fig. I. Panel from the Alhambra. 

„ 2. Decoration in stone above a door in Cairo. 

„ 3 and 4. Base and capital of a column from Cairo. 

>' 5- and 6. „ „ „ „ „ „ „ the Alhambra. 

„ 7 and 8. Stalactites from Cairo. 

„ 9 and 10. Corbels from Cairo. 

,: II — 15. Pinnacles from Cairo. 



^ <>» ^ 



ARABIAN 



25 




Printed by E. Uochdanz, Slattgart. 



I M iri M ! I 

ILLUMINATION OF MANUSCRIPTS 



26 








It 



10 










12 





It 






Piintsd by Hoffmann, Slnttgart. 



ARCHITECTONIC ORNAMENTS 




Plate 



ARABIAN-MORESQUE. 



MOSAIC WORK AND GLAZED CLAY WORK. 



A, 



I 



^rabian and Moorish mosaics are made partly of small pieces of coloured marble, partly of small clay 
plates, painted and glazed. Sometimes (as in Fig. 5 — 11) the designs are cut into the marble plates and 
the deepenings filled in with coloured cement. 

In these mosaics the geometrical principle predominates. Regarding the colours used, it is noticeable 
that the secondary and tertiary colours were most in favour ; it may also be observed , that the Moors, 
relinquishing here the primary colours exclusively used by them at other times, preferred on the contrary 
green and orange. 

These mosaics served for covering the floors as well as the lower parts of the walls. 



Fig. I, 3 and 4. Wainscottings of glazed clay from the Alhambra. 

„ 2. Wainscotting of glazed clay from the mosque of the Cheykhoun at Cairo. 

„ 5 — 7 and 9 — II. Marble wainscottings inlaid with stucco from Cairo. 

„ 8, „ „ „ „ „ „ Damascus. 



I 



Plate 28. 



MORESQUE. 

ARCHITECTONIC ORNAMENTS. 



Opain is the country, where the Islamitic art found its purest and most beautiful development in the 
buildings of the Moorish kings, for instance, in the palace of Alhambra near Granada (13th and 14th 
century). Especially with the Moors, Mahomedan ornamentation reached its culminating point. 

Fig. 2 — 10 represent mouldings and wall surfaces executed in stucco and painted. The characteristics 
of Arabian ornamentation, hitherto mentioned, are identical with Moorish, but it may be added, that the 
former is neither so happy in the distribution of the ornament over the surface, nor so varied as the latter. 
The Moorish artists knew how to produce wonderful effects by artfully interlacing and twisting the geo- 
metrical and arabesque ornaments; for here they could give full play, so to speak, to their richly gifted 
imagination. Therefore, we find two (Fig. 6, 7, 9) and sometimes even three systems of ornaments (Fig. 10) 
worked into each other , and this richness is still increased by the bands and leaves being covered with 
fine ornaments. This profusion, however, is far from troubling and disquieting the eye, for design and 
colour being perfectly appropriate to disconnect the single systems, each of them can be very well dis- 
tinguished from the other, whereas all together effect a splendid harmony, and surprise the attentive beholder 
again and again with new beauties. The ornament, executed always in very low relief, never loses its 
character as surface decoration. 

The prominent bands and scrolls in most cases are gilt ; when the ground is red , the feather 
decorations of the leaves are blue, or the reverse ; sometimes red and blue change alternately in the ground 
Besides these three primary colours, white is frequently employed. 

That writing too very frequently served as ornamentation, is to be seen in Fig. 6, 7 and 10. 

Our 10 illustrations have been taken exclusively from the Alhambra. 



ARABIAN-MORESQUE 



27 




Printed by E. Hochdanz, Stuttgart, 



MOSAIC WORK AND GLAZED CLAY WORK 



MORESQUE 



28 




:^iM^ 



Printed by E. Hoclidanz, Stuttgart. 



ARCHITECTONIC ORNAMENTS 



Plate 29. 

TURKISH. 

ARCHITECTONIC ORNAMENTS IN GLAZED CLAY. 



We 



e can hardly speak of a proper slylc indicating the genius of the Turkish nation before the 15111 cen- 
tury. Previous to that for instance the Christian churches of the conquered countries were either changed 
into mosques, or Christian artists were charged with the erection of new buildings. Likewise the art of 
ornamentation was essentially influenced first by 15yzantine , and later on by T'crsian and Arabian modes 
of decoration. Finally from a mixture of the two latter styles Turkish ornamentation took its origin. 

What strikes us here first of all, is the frequent recurrence in leav'es and scrolls of the re-entering 
angle, which has its origin in Persia (compare Plate 20, P'ig. 3) ; next we observe a certain poverty of the 
scroll work, which (especially when compared with Moorish treatment) leaves large spaces of the ground 
free and uncovered (Fig. 5, 6). Moreover the decorations painted on the leaves with different colours, are 
frequently wanting in form, whereas the Turkish artist also likes ingenious interlacements of several systems 
of lines. — The colours used, are not very brilliant, and looking at their combination, we miss the splen- 
dour and abundance of Arabian and Moorish art. In earlier times the ground nearly always had a deep 
sad blue, whereas in later works green or light red predominate. 

Fig. 8, 10, II furnish proof, that in the ornament of the Islamitic nations, the Persian floral clement 
always bursts forth afresh and in comparative pureness. Altogether it is to be noted, that numerous pro- 
ductions of Persian art, especially painted clay plates etc., were imported and used by the Turks. 



Fig. 1,2 5, 6, 7 and 9. From the Mosc]ue of Ycchil-Djami at Brussa. 
„ 3, 4 and 8. From the Ycchil-Turbey-Tomb of Sultan Mohammed I. 
„ 10 and II. From the Tomb Mourahdieh. 



Plate 30. 



CELTIC. 



ILLUMINATION OF MANUSCRIPTS. 



/vniong the Celtic population of Ireland there was already in very early times an original style of orna- 
ment developed, the commencement of which no doubt goes far back to the days when heathenism still 
prevailed in that island. To this period may be ascribed the origin of several stone coffins, which show 
the same decorations as wc find in the manuscripts of Celtic monks down from the 6* century. This 
ornamentation, not at all influenced by Byzantine or some other south- or east-Iuiropean art, bears a cha- 
racter of its own, for the relics of it, found also with the Scandinavian nations, are certainly traceable 
to Ireland. 

In the eldest Celtic or Irish manuscripts the large initial letters were at first distinguished by a 
network of red dots surrounding them (compare Fig. i, lower part). Soon afterwards however, the artists 
proceeded to the proper interlaced ribbon work, in the employment of which they exhibit a surprising 
skilfulness and variety (I'ig. i, 3, 9). With similar work, frequently used as decoration, we meet again 
in the Renaissance period. 

For Celtic interlacing work , either filling up the spare surfaces of the letters or bordering the 
separate pages, the limbs or bodies of snakes, birds, dogs and fantastical animals were employed (Fig. i, 5, 9). 
Occasionally the human figure occurs, whereas the vegetable ornament is wholly wanting. Its introdiicUon 
first dates from the 9''' century, and after weak commencements (compare Fig. 8) it spreads more and 
more, next the ribbon ornament, under the influence of the Romanesque style. 

The number of colours is a small one, in the beginning especially, gold occurs only in a later epoch. 



Fig- i^S- From the VII. century. 

„ 6 and 7. „ „ VIII. 

.. 9—"- II „ X. 

11 12. ,, ,, XI. 



TURKISH 




Printed by E. Hoelidaiiz, Stutlgart. 



ARCHITECTONIC ORNAMENTS IN GLAZED CLAY 



CELTIC 



30 




ILLUMINATION OF MANUSCRIPTS 



Plate 31. 

BYZANTINE. 

» 

GLASS-MOSAIC, COLOURED ENAMEL and ILLUMINATION. 



I 



n conformity with the decay of the occidental Roman empire and the beginning flourish of the oriental 
Roman or Byzantine, from the 4''' till the 6''> century, art declined on the soil of Italy, having found a 
safe home at the splendid court, and under the shelter of the mighty empire, which had its centre in 
Byzantium. 

Although this Byzantine art was by no means original, to a great extent taking up the later 
Roman style, at the same time adopting, as a matter of course, many motives of the ancient Greeks, and 
not even closing itself against the influence of the East, yet in consequence of the unsettled state of the 
West, the Byzantine style predominated here till the end of the first millennium and even later. 
Numerous works of art were even imported from the eastern Roman empire into Italy, where Byzantine 
artists and workmen established their practise and style. Hence we understand, that in almost every country 
of Europe works of art are found, which cannot deny their Byzantine origin. 

The interiors of public edifices, palaces and churches were gorgeously decorated. To satisfy the love 
of pomp which possessed the great ones of that age, the so-called glass-mosaic was especially appropriate, 
producing the grandest pictures with small cubes of coloured glass of different sizes (for instance in the 
church of Sta. Sofia at Constantinople). A characteristic of these pictures is, that their ground is exclusively 
gold, as on the whole the use of gold was almost unlimited. Consequently the other colours added (prin- 
cipally red, blue and green), required a very deep and full tone. 

In "cloisonne work" too, these deep colours return everywhere. Most probably this technique was 
introduced in a very early period from China and India. According to the reigning luxury, gold was 
used almost universally as a substratum for the enamel and the separating metal lines. 

The ornamentation represents either more or less simple geometrical patterns (compare Fig. 6 and 7), 
or beautifully idealised scroll work. The latter bears at first a great resemblance to ancient Greek treatment, 
but soon we recognize, as for instance in the acanthus leaves, an increasing rigidness of the forms, especially 
in illumination of manuscripts. 

Finally we have to mention, that frequently Christian symbols were applied, specially that of the cross. 



Fig. I. Glass-mosaic from the cylindrical vault above the central nave of the tomb-church of Gafla 
Placidia at Ravenna. 
„ 2. Glass-mosaic from the walls of St. Mark's, Venice. 

3. J, „ from one of the semi-domes of Sta. Sofia, Constantinople. 

4. ^j ^. from the vault of the Baptistery of Ecclesia Ursiana (S. Giovanni in Fonte) at 

Ravenna. 
5—9. "Email cloisonne" from an Altar-Antependium in the Cloister-church at Comburg near 

Schwabisch Hall. 
10 and II. Illuminations from Gospels of the X. and XI. centuries in the Imperial Library at 

St. Petersburg. 
12 and 13. Ornaments from a manuscript of the XIII. century in the public Museum at Moscow. 



Fig. I. After an original drawing by A. Knoblauch, architect at Stuttgart. 
4 „ „ „ A. Borkhardt. „ „ „ 

" T r, " " ., II. Gross, painter and teacher at the Royal Kunstgewerbeschule at Stuttgart. 



Plate 32. 



BYZANTINE. 

INCRUSTED ENAMEL, MARBLE-MOSAIC 
AND GLASS-MOSAIC. 



I 



ncrusted enamel was not less cultivated than "cloisonne work". Fig. i shows us, executed in this manner, 
Christ enthroned on a rainbow and surrounded by the symbols of the four Evangelists. This figure proves 
that in course of time, a certain lifelessness prevailed in the figural representations ; specially looking on 
the image in the middle, we are struck by the expression of quietness having quite grown into rigidity. 
In marble mosaic, with which the floors were lavishly covered, decorative art again made use of 
the various changes of geometrical motives. In this practice the Byzantine artists have given many ideas 
to the Mohammedan. However a conventional treatment of foliage and scroll work is not excluded and 
reminds us, as mentioned, of antique examples. 



Fig. I. Book-cover of gilt bronze decorated with incrusted enamel and stones, XII. century, in the 
Museo Correi at Venice. 
„ 2, 3 and 5. Marble mosaics from floors in S. Alessio at Rome. 
„ 4. Marble mosaics from floors in S. Maria in Cosmedin ibid. 
" ^- n . II n „ „ S. Vitale at Ravenna. 

„ 7. Gla.ss mosaics from S. Maria in Araceli at Rome. 
11 8. „ „ ,, S. Alessio at Rome. 

„ 9 and 10. Glass mosaics from the Duomo at Messina. 
,1 11 — 13- r, „ „ „ „ „ Monreale. 

" 14—16. „ „ „ „ Facade of the Cathedral of Orvieto. 

„ 17 and 18. Marble-mosaic-bands from capitals in St. Mark's at Venice. 
„ 19 and 20. „ „ „ from the walls of Sta. Sofia, Constantinople. 

Fig. I. After .an original drawing by A. Borkhardt, archilect at .StuUgarl. 
,1 2-5, 7, 8, 14, IS and 16 after original drawings liy II. Dolmersch al Suittgart. 



» <«» » 



BYZANTINE 



31 




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Printed by K. Hoclidanz, Stuttgiirt. 



GLASS-MOSAIC, COLOURED ENAMEL AND ILLUMINATION 



BYZANTINE 



32 







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INCRUSTED ENAMEL, MARBLE-MOSAIC AND GLASS-MOSAIC 



Plate 33. 



BYZANTINE. 



WEAVING AND EMBROIDERY. 



E, 



,ven since the importation of silk in the 6A century, Byzantium could succesfully compete in woven 
fabrics with the Asiatic productions of this class, taking the lead in Europe till far into the I2tli century. 
During this period an extensive trade was carried on in the most precious woven fabrics, figured or not, 
in gorgeous embroidered materials and stuffs, adorned beads (Fig. 3, 5, 7 and 8). The Sarazene 
weavers in the island of Sicily rivaled, it is true, the Byzantine; however it was not before the 
conquest of Sicily by the Normans, when a great number of captive Grecian weavers were transported to 
Palermo, (thus uniting Christian and Mohamedan art), that the stuffs and robes from the Royal manufacturies 
of Sicily attained the highest value in the emporiums of the world for their splendour and their beauti- 
ful designs. 

Plate 33 shows us such Sicilian articles exhibiting clearl)' the influence of Arabian ornamentation, 
without denying Byzantine forms. — In these woven fabrics the ornament is always treated as surface de- 
coration. The plants and animals which we see applied, do not exactly imitate nature, but are more or 
less idealised. — In Fig. 9 the lion overpowering the camel seems intended to symbolize Christianity 
overruling Islam. 



Fig. I. Embroidered purple robe in the cathedral-treasure at Bamberg. 
„ 2. Figured silk-stuff on the tunic of Henry II. in the National -Museum at Munich. 
„ 3, 4 and 7. Embroidered borders from the Imperial Alb in the Imp. treasury at Vienna. 
,. 5 and 6. Embroidered borders from the Imperial tunicle ibid. 

„ 8. limbroidered borders on the German Emperor's mantle in the Imperial treasury at Vienna. 
., 9. Embroidery on the German Emperor's mantle ibid. 

., 10 and IT. Patterns painted on garments from tomb-stones in the church S. Lorenzo Fuori 
le mura at Rome. 




Plate 34. 



BYZANTINE 



AND 



MIDDLE-AGES. 



ARCHITECTURE and SCULPTURE. 



A, 



Llthough on the whole the difference between Byzantine and Romanesque architecture is very con- 
siderable (when we look on both styles in general), yet as regards decorative details, it moves within 
very narrow limits, which fact is easily accountable from the above mentioned active export of Byzantine 
objects of art into Western countries, and from the influence of Byzantine artists. 

The Byzantine capital is either an imitation of antique capitals, especially of the Corinthian (Fig. i), 
or it exhibits an original shape in the form of a cube contracted at the bottom, and rounded off at its lower 
angles (Fig. 2). In the former case however, the treatment of the foliage, inclining with its broad 
indentments and sharp points to a certain rigidness , does no longer manifest that close observation of 
nature, as in the classical period. In the latter case the four sides are framed with low raised ribbon or 
plaited work inclosing either foliage, always conventionally treated, or symbolical figures. 

Romanesque architecture shaped its capitals either in Corinthian-like or Byzantine-like manner 
(cushion capital), or it created special forms in its bell-shaped and calyculate capitals, these being either 
plainly treated or richly ornamented. Most frequently we find the cushion capitals covered with figural 
ornaments (Fig. 10), human figures and animals, often fantastically transformed, not being generally, 
despised as means of decoration. Besides these, the so-called tarin-capitals were frequently used. — As 
decoration for pillar-shafts, key-stones, friezes, cornices etc., scroll work and foliage were in great favour, 
appearing, without exception, in idealised forms, and often showing, at least in the first times, an inferior 
understanding of nature. The leaves are broadly treated and their points frequently rounded. — To 
produce an efiective change of light and shadow, all forms were worked out in very high relief, sometimes 
almost completely standing out from the ground, as in Fig. 13. — Fig. 13 and 14 belong already to the 
so-called transition-style. 



¥\s.. 



3- 
4. 
5- 
6. 

7- 
8. 

9- 
10. 
II. 
12. 

i3. 
14. 

15- 
16. 

17- 

18. 

19 
21. 
00 



Capital from Agia Theotokos at Constantinople. Close of IX. centur)'. 

Capital from S. Vitale at Ravenna. 

Lintel-decoration from Agia Theotokos at Constantinople. 

Chaptrel-cornice from the church of St. Nicolas at Myra. 

Pilaster-capital from Agia Sofia at Constantinople. 

Door-frame on the abbey-church at St. Denis. Midst of XII. century. 

Panel. 

Pillar-decoration from the cathedral at Bourges. 

" *' " '■ :^ :^ :■ 

Capital from the abbey-church at St. Benoit. 

„ „ „ Barbarossa-palace at Gelnhausen. 

Arch-border from the church St. Amant de Boixc. 

V :' <it Gelnhausen. Beginning of the XIII century. 

Console „ ,. „ 

Decoration of a pillar-shaft from the church at Tournus XII. century. 

" " '■ " " n n „ „ „ „ cathedral at Chartres. 

From a door-frame from the former Benedictine-abbey-church at EUwangen. 
Frieze in the interior of St. Walderich's chapel at Murrhardt. 
and 20. Arch-consols on the side-ai.sle of St. Sebald, Nurembercr. 
Key-stone-decoration in the same church. 

„ from the cathedral at Bamber'T. 



.-<}..<:-. 



BYZANTINE 



33 




Printed hy E. Hocli'danz Stuttgart 



WEAVING AND EMBROIDERY 



BYZANTINE and MIDDLE AGES 



34 




.K,S<ka*/p«rlf ^ 



Printed by Hoffmana, S'uttgart. 



ARCHITECTURE AND SCULPTURE 



Table 34A.- 



RUSSIAN. 

MANUSCRIPT-PAINTING. 



T. 



he old Slavic Manuscripts handed down to us , which reach back as far as the X. century , are rather 
numerous, thanks to the almost complete state of preservation of the libraries and treasuries of the many 
old cloisters in Russia. Besides there is an important collection of manuscripts at the Imperial Public 
Library of St. Petersburgh and at the library of the Sj^nodal printing works of Moscow. 

On table 3 1 we have added to the patterns of Byzantine Ornaments some examples of m.anu- 
script-painting found in Russian libraries, dating from the X., up to the XIII. century. In connection 
therewith our table 33a represents a considerable number of characteristic examples from the XIV. and 




XV. centuries, during which the style of Russian manuscript -painting was most flourishing. This 
period is marked by the assertion on the one side of braided work displayed on a geometrical base and 
on the other side of more unconstrained motives combined Avith animal forms which remind us of 
Celtic ornaments. The few pigments used of these occasions are as a rule confined to blue, red, yellow 
and green. This simplicit)' of colour, together with a symmetrical order of forms, confers a most agree- 
able calm on the manuscript-paintings in question; the motives of that time are still employed for coloured 
letter-press, Elnamels and similar technics. 



From a Gospel of the XIV. Century in the Imperial Public Library. 
3, 12 and 13. From Psalteries in the library of the Trinity Cloister near Moscow. 
and 5. From Psalteries in the Imperial Public Library, 
and 7. From Gospels in the Rumjantzoff Museum, Moscow. 

Book-ornament, XV. Century from Rostow. 
and 15. From a prayer book in the Cloister of Miracles, Moscow, 
and II. Fractions of alphabetical characters. XIV. Century. 

From a prayer book in the Bjeloserski Cloister XV. Century. 

From a Gospel in the Cloister of Marys glorification near Nowgorod. 

From a Psaltery of the XV. Ccntur}/. 

Book-ornament from the work »Appendice a I'imitation de Jesus-Christ. « 

From a Gospel XII. Century in the Rumjantzoff Museum, Moscow. 

The table i.s arranged by M. Scherwinsky, Direcior of the Industrial school, Riga. 

Taken from ..Thepublicatioii of the JMoscow Museum of Art Industry" and from .,\\'. Stassow, Slavic Ornament in old and 

new manuscripts". 
..History of Russian Ornaments from the X. to the XIV. Century, iluseum of Au Industry at .Moscow" and ..Appendice .a 

I'imitation de Jesus-Christ". 



^^"igure I. 


;: 


2, 


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4 
6 


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8. 




9 


„ 


10 


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14. 


-.1 


16. 




17- 
18. 


?5 


19. 




Fig. 19. 



Table 34 '5, 

RUSSIA. 

ARCHITECTURAL ORNAMENTS AND WOOD-CARVINGS. 



A. 



s regards their form and decoration the oldest Russian buildings resemble closely the Byzantine 
monuments which is explained by the fact, that it was from Byzantium that the Gospel was carried to 
and extended over "Russia in the IX. Century. These Russian-Byzantine structures certainly do not lack 
original motives which were improved upon in Russia, but in many cases it is almost impossible to trace 
them to their source. Many forms of this style, and especially of the distinct Russian style of the 
XVI. Century may no doubt be regarded as importations from the far East. The Russian style flourished 
until the XVIII. Century only, when french influences began to assert themselves there as all over Europe. 



One of the most promiment 
and peculiar buildings of the XVI. 
Century is the church of Saint 
Basil at Moscow (built in memory- 
of the capture of Kasan\ The 
forms of the XVI. Century arc 
frequentl}- adopted for modern 
constructions in the Russian style. 

Characteristical in Russian 
churches are their bulbiform cu- 
polas (Fig. i) which we see in a 
variety of shapes. The baldaquins 
in most places of worship present 
a particularl)' rich configuration ; 
we often find them crowned with 
keel-like gables and turrets , re- 
minding us somewhat of Gothic 
superstructures. (Fig. 4.) Not 
seldom we come across arched 
ornaments meeting between the 
chief supports which rest upon a 




richly embellished tenon. (Fig. ^.'- 
Very abundant are motives for 
\\'ood-architecture on the farm- 
houses in the central and northern 
governments. Their origin often 
is a very ancient one. It is aston- 
ishing to notice the severe style 
of these ornaments which consist 
of planed boards artfulh' perforated 
and sawn out, and to consider the 
uniform punctuality bestowed on 
the work. A favorite hobby are 
the ornamental boards suspended 
from the projecting cornices of 
the roofs (Fig. 11. 12 and 13 
and also employed as an em- 
bellishment underneath the outside 
sills of the windows. Frequentl)' 
they are brightened up with colours 
and thus look at a distance like 



those richlv embroidered and lace- 
bordered favorite towels which in Russia garnish the portraits of Saints or looking- glasses etc. For this 
reason the said ornamental boards are populary called .,to\vels". — 

We willingly recognize, that Russian architecture deserves our special appreciation and are glad to 
observe that its native Country has since a few years by means of meritorious publications, direcred the 
attentio!! of the Public at large to this highly interesting style of architecture. 



Fig. I. Phantastic church-cupolas at Jarcslaw. XVIT. and XVIII. Century. 



/ 

I !■ 

14 
16 
20 



and 

. From 
and 6. 

— 10. 

-13- 

and 
-19. 

and 



in the Nicolav church. 



Gilt wood carvings of the Baldaquin of the Imperial chair 

Jaroslaw. XVII. Centur^^ 
a baldaquin in the Museum "of the Imperial Academy of Arts 
Carved ro.ses on the principal door of the altar, church of St. John, near Rostow, 
XVil. Century. 
Window frames of wooden houses in the government Wolocrda. 
Gable ornaments in the same district. " 

15. Ornamental Boards on sills etc. 

Roses on the wings of doors, made of small panels. Government of Samara. 
21. 1 ortions of such roses. 



Capital with vegetable ornaments. 



The figures i, 4 and 15-21 .ifler copies taken by M. .Scherwinsky, Director of the Industrial .School -tt Ki-n 
The remaining figures are taken from: ^ 

,,Prince Gagarin, Collection of Byzantine and Oia-russiau Ornaments ■■ 

,,rArchitecte, St. Petersbourg, 1885," and 

„Viollet-le-Duc, L'art russe. " 



-^»-5f>£ 



RUSSIAN 



^^ 



34^ 




Printed by A. GatH;i-iiicht, Shitiirait. 



MANUSCRIPT-PAINTING 



I 




RUSSIAN 



34B 




Printed by A. Gatternicht, Stuttgart. 



ARCHITECTURAL ORNAMENTS AND WOOD-CARVINGS 



Table 34*^'. 



RUSSIA. 



ENAMEL, MAJOLIKA, PAINTINGS ON WALLS AND 
CEILINGS, JAPANNED WOODWORK. 



I 



n Russia we find enamel ornavients on gold , silver and copper still as widely distributed and as highly- 
esteemed as in former times when they first attained their reputation. The figures 15 — 18 present some 
interesting examples of this kind and it is especially figure 15 which shows us how extensive was the 
employment of these noble technics , for here we see the edge of a gold dish belonging to a set for 
1 20 persons whichCzarAlexeiMichaelowitsch( 1645— 1676) is said to have had manufactured by Russian artists. 
In like manner have the Majolica technics found an early and extensive employment in conse- 
quence of their being preferred and used for the ornamentation of the fronts of Palaces and churches no 
less than of the interior of altars, but most particularly of stoves in private rooms. This we find confirmed 
in many towns along the river Volga, especially at Jaroslaw, by an abundance of examples. In recent 
times these beautiful technics have been taken up again in many parts of Russia and the result has been 
a highly satisfactory one. 




\'\a. 22. 

As to ornamental painting on ivalls and ceilings, the old remnants which Russia can furnish are 
not very numerous. They present to us tender creepers with large leaves and flowers in deep colours 
which betray an Oriental origin, and some of them are enlivened by portrait-medaillons interspersed. 

One of the most interesting branches of the house-industries still to this day practised in the 
central parts of Russia, is the production of japanned wood artieles which possess great durability. 
(Fig. 19 — 21.) These utensils first receive a surface of precipitate of graphite upon which the patterns 
are painted-generally in black or red colours and finally they arc coated with linseed oil boiled down to 
a jell}-. This latter confers a greenish gold tint on the graphite which imparts a rich and warm colouring 
to the articles thus treated. 



/ Fig. 1—4. Wall-paintings on a spiral staircase in the Cathedral of the Annunciation at Moscow. 

/ XV. Century. 

„ 5 — 7. Ornaments on vaults in a house of Moscow. XVII. Century. 

„ 8 and 9. Majolica-Pilaster as window frame at the Terem (Palace of the Empresses) on 

the Kreml, Moscow. 
„ 10 — 14. Stove-pans made in the market-town of Ustjug. XVII. Century, in the Museum of 

the Imperial Society for the promotion of Art in St. Petersburgh. 
„ 15. Edge of a gold dish in the treasury of the Kreml at Moscow. 
„ 16 — 18. Veil from the portrait of a saint of the XVII. Century. Enamel on silver. From 

the Museum of the Imperial Society for the promotion of Art, St. Petersburgh. 
« 19 — 21. Japanned wooden spoons and top of a footstool. Articles made by peasants in 

the district of Nowgorod. 
„ 22. Ornament in chased metal. 

Fig. 19—21 after copies made by M. .Scherwinsky. Director of the ludiislrial School at Riga. 
The other subjects taken from : 

,,N. Simakof: Tornement russe dans les anciens produits de I'art industriel national." 

„Th. Sonzew: „Altertumer des russischen Kaiserreiches, Moskau 1S49 — 1853," 

,,Viollet-le-Duc: I'art russe." 



-— ^*--:34KI>-4--^ 



Table 34^- 



NORTHERN. 



WOOD-CARVING. 



I 



f we devote a chapter to the »Northern style* it is by no means our intention to embody in our table 
every variation of style appertaining to this category, which succeeded each other from the roman-ger- 
manic period down to the introduction of Christianity. Our representations, on the contrary, are confined 
to the time this side of the twelfth century. 

We have already on Table 30, when speaking of Celtic urnaiiients, expressed our opinion that the 
same betray original and independent characteristics and that traces of this style may be noticed more 
especially in Scandinavia. In the same manner as Irish missionaries, animated by an enthusiastic migra- 



tory impulse, disseminated the Irish style 
over the whole of Western P2urope, its in- 
troduction in Northern countries and parti- 
cularly in Norway took place as far back 
as the VIII. century. It was then that mo- 
tives of the oldest Irish style began to be 
most intimately blended with the style intro- 
duced by the migration of nations (Charle- 
magne) which had up to that time been 
dominant in the North. Thus a peculiar 
compound style was created and this deve- 
loped — especially in the IX. Century during 
the Viking period with its Northern ascen- 
danc)- — to that so-called northcrii-irish style 
which testifies to Icelands artistic influence 
up to the XI. Century. In the same manner 
as animal ornaments used to form the uni- 
versal basis of style in comtemporaneous 
west- and northeuropean Art, so do above all 
animal motives play an important part also in 
Scandinavian Art. At first they represented 
an intricate surface decoration loaded with 
animal figures, difficult to unravel but free 
from any admixture of other motives. Later 
on foreign elements are added in the form 
of quadruped animals, birds, snakes, images 
of lions and winged dragons, which are chan- 
which characterized the Art of wood-carvins; 




ged into novel and strange forms of animals 
conformably with the earliest mediaeval style. 
These varied animal motives are then en- 
compassed by all sorts of foliage and tape- 
like motives. The foliaceous ornaments, ela- 
borated in romanish fashion, were gradually 
enlarged to such extent that the original style 
was thereby forced into other paths more in 
sympathy with the traditions of Greek Art. 
No symbolic attributes whatever attach to 
the animal figures here introduced, for they 
must simply be taken as ornamental motives. 
At free terminal points, such as gableheads, 
waterspouts, ships'-prows etc. as also at the 
upper termination of pilastres human ad ani- 
mal heads or birds were preferably made use 
of. (Fig. 13 — 16.) Frequently we also meet 
with original ornaments composed of letters 
and with that score- or notch-work so widely 
adopted for minor objects of Art. 

We possess moreover a rich store of 
northern ornaments in those wooden churchs 
of the XII. and XIII. Centuries which are 
still to be found in Sweden and Norway. 
Whilst we learn from those how ornamental 
Art was applied to buildings, we at the same 
time are impressed by the infinite exactness 



in those times as practised on the most varied domestic 
articles, many of those being even enchased in colours, as may be seen in the Museums of Art industry 
at Copenhagen, Stockholm, Christiania etc. 

As regards the technics in relation thereto, we have to consider the fact that these ornaments 
were one and all carved with knives which was of no little influence on the formation of the plain 
relievo-ornaments here adopted. 



Figure i. Porch of the church at Hedal. 

„ 2. Side portion of the Porch of the church 

at Austad. 
,, 3. The same of the church at Hyllestad. 
„ 4. Arches of the Arcades in the church at 

Opdal (Numedal). 
„ 5 and 6. Scrolls of cylindrical capitals of 

pillars in the church at Lomen. 
„ 7. Gallery in the church at Hurum. 
„ 8 and 9. Scrolls of cylindrical capitals of 

pillars in the same church. 
„ 10 and II. Capitals in the church at Urnes. 



Figure 12. Portion of a stall in the choir of same 

church. 
„ 13. Upper termination of a pilaster in the 

church of Gol. 
,, 14. Swedish ships-prow in the Museum of 

Christiania. 
„ 15 and 16. Waterspout on the church atMoere. 
„ 18 — 23. Swedish notch-ornaments in theNord- 

land Museum at Stockholm. 
„ 24. Side portion of the porch of the church 

at Urnes. 

Frieze in the church at Opdal. 



-:>■ 



..Tidskrift for Kunstindustri." 



Taken from: „Ruprich-Robert, I'architecture normande." 

„01denburg, tr.=isniderim6nster ur Nordiska Museet i Stockholm.'' 
„Dietrichsou, de norske stavUirker." ,,Mindesmerker af Middelalderens Kunsl 



i Norge 



RUSSIAN 



34^ 




Printed i.j K. Hucli.Ianz Si.uIk-.ii-I. 



ENAMEL, MAJOLIKA, PAINTINGS ON WALLS AND CEILINGS, 

JAPANNED WOODWORK. 



34 



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p^fefi 




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j^l^K 




^^^^^m 






mm 




Printed by Hoffmann, Stuttgart. 



WOOD-CARVING 



Plate 35. 

MIDDLE-AGES. 

ENAMEL AND ILLUMINATION OF MANUSCRIPTS. 



Th< 



I 



he Romanesque ornament found its freeest display in the illumination of manuscripts, where particularly 
the large initials were magnificently treated (Fig. i and 2). Especially animals were here combined with 
scroll work in the most strange arabesque-like representations. The ground of the paintings in earlier 
times was gold, later on many-coloured. 

In the art of enamelling, which had been transferred from Byzantium to Germany, the German 
artists attained a high point of perfection ; only they took for their metal-ground copper-plates instead of 
the expensive gold-plates, and instead of "email cloisonne" they employed "champleve work" which then 
spread also in France and made especially the manufacturies of Limoges far and wide renowned. — 
Generally, when figural representations were designed , the artists treated only the background and the 
surrounding ornaments in this manner , sparing out the figures themselves in metal and after having 
engraved the details (contours of garments etc.) with the burin, raised their effect by coloured enamel. 
(Compare the head in Fig. 20.) Fig. 3 shows a somewhat different kind of enamelling, the contours 
themselves being spared out, and the remainder of the figure worked in enamel. The prominent head is 
made of gilt copper, as in many such objects of art, and put on separately. Fig. 6 and 11 show the 
zigzag and circular — arched mouldings, so much favoured in architecture. 



Fig. I. Initial from a German manuscript (Rhenish school), XI. — XII. cent., in the Library at 

Paris. 
„ 2. Initial from a German manuscript of the XII. cent, from a private collection at Cologne. 
„ 3. Relic-cross from the first half of the XII. cent, in the Diocesan-Museum at Freising. 
„ 4. Pilaster from the shrine of St. Heribertus in the Benedictine-Abbey at Deutz. Midst 

of the XII. cent. 
„ 5 and 10. From the shrive of the great relics at Aachen. XII. cent. 
„ 6. From a collection at Bonn. XII. cent. 

„ 7. Decoration from the Anno-shrine in the former abbey at Siegburg. XL cent. 
„ 8 and 9. From a reliquary in South-Kensington Museum at London. XII. cent. 
„ II. From a little reliquary. XII. cent. 

„ 12 and 13. From the portable altar of St. Andrews in the cathedral at Treves. X. cent. 
„ 14. Flat disk of gilt copper in private possession at Bamberg. XII. cent. 
„ 15. Half from a shrine in the former abbey at Siegburg. XL cent. 
,^ 16—19. Decorations on double crosses at Essen. XL cent. 
„ 20. Half figure of an angel from the shrine of St. Heribertus. Vide Fig. 4. 
„ 21. From the shrine of Charlemagne at Aachen. XII. cent. 
,. 22 and 23. From the Mauritius-shrine at Siegburg. XL cent. 
„ 24. From an altar-wall. XII. cent. 



Plate 36. 



MIDDLE-AGES. 



WALL PAINTING. 



J_he colours used in wall painting are cheerful and of great variety. The human figures do not exhibit 
the same rigidity of old age as the contemporary Byzantine, but show a freeer and more youthful move- 
ment. The folds of the garments following pretty closely the forms of the body, are much better modelled 
than, for instance, in the Byzantine images. As regards the ornament, all the pecularities of the Romanesque 
style we have mentioned hitherto, are likewise applicable to it. Frequent use is made of the circle or 
parts of a circle. 



I 



Fig. I and 2. From the apsis of the Basilica di S. Angelo in Formis near Capua. XI. century. 
„ 3 — 5. From the chapter-house of the former Benedictine-abbey Brauweiler near Cologne. 

XL century. 
„ 6—9. From the lower church at Schwarz-Rheindorf near Bonn. Midst of the XII. century. 
„ 10, II and 15. From the choir of the cathedral at Braunschweig. XII. century. 
„ 12. From the former abbey-church at Marcigny. XII. century. 
„ 13 and 14. From the church at Anzy. XII. century. 
„ 16 and 17. From the lower church S. Francesco at Assisi. 



MIDDLE AGES 



35 







>?j^v8«iiJfe;^!a^atg^;!i.¥^M;,fa>;A'^v»^ 



Printed by Mux Seeger, SLuti^iut. 



ENAMEL AND ILLUMINATION OF MANUSCRIPTS 



MIDDLE AGES 




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PrimecJ by K. Hocluitmz, Sluitjrnrl. 



WALL PAINTING 



Plate 37. 



MIDDLE-AGES. 



STAINED GLASS. 



A, 



although the production of coloured glass was alread)^ known in the 9"^ century, we cannot speak of 
glass-painting before the close of the lo"'' century. At that time the first trials were made to shade glass 



panes, stained in the substance, by 
melting a darker colour upon them, 
and in the 13''' century the makers 
proceeded to cover or "flash" colour- 
less glass (which had, however, always 
a greenish-yellow hue), with coloured 
glass and to engrave the design on to 
the latter, so that according to the 
requirements the flashed glass had 
more or less thickness in some places 
or was even entirely removed. Then 
these colourless places were often still 



9 






b 


25 


12 



7 


8 


^1 

11 


2.0 

10 


15 X' ~^^xl6 
1 


18 
17 


Vr 


l|X^_^ 






Z 


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5 


^ 


12- 



painted with another colour, and in 
order to produce a greater richness of 
coloration different colours were laid 
on both sides of the glass. — Finally 
the finished glasses were joined by 
lead-rods so as to form the required 
design. 

In the Romanesque period glass- 
paintings still bear quite the character 
of carpets, the place of which they 
in reality supply. The window-surface 
is covered with ribbon and leaf 



ornaments, in the midst of which, we find however, very early medallions with little figural representations ; 
less frequently we meet with standing figures, filling up the whole window. The single figures are still 
clumsy and wrongly drawn. 



Fig. I — 6. From the cathedral at Chartres. 
„ 7. „ „ abbey-church at St. Denis. 

„ 8. „ „ church St. Urbain at Troyes. 

„ 9. „ „ cathedral ibid. 

„ 10. ,, „ „ at Laon. 

„ II and 12. From the cathedral at Angers. 



13 and 14. 

15- 

16. 
17 and 18. 

19. 
20 — 23. 

24. 



Samaritan church at Bourges. 
cathedral ibid. 

„ at Chalons. 

St. Chapelle at Paris, 
minster of Strassburg. 

choir of the upper church S. Francesco at Assisi. 
church S. Paolo fuori le mura at Rome (modern). 



Plate 38. 



MIDDLE-AGES. 



STONE-MOSAIC. 



Wk 



here stones of various colours for an artistic floor-incrustation were not available, it plainly was 
expedient, to use small clay-plates or engraved stone-flags for adorning the floors. Such stone-flags, with 
the designs executed in coloured cement, we met with already, when speaking of the Arabian ornamentation, 
likewise with small clay-tiles joined together as a kind of mosaic-flooring (Fig. 9—16). In the latter case 
we find, especially in the period of the predominance of Romanesque style, either each single colour 
represented by a corresponding Httle plate (Fig. 13 — 16), or the ornament impressed on a clay-plate, 
the ridges filled up with variously coloured cement, and the whole finally faced with transparent glazing, 
(Fig. 17—27). 

Besides this, there came up the custom, which spread especially in the Gothic period, of drawing 
on the separate tiles a sunk or raised design by means of a model. It took usually four of these little plates 
put together to form the intended ornament ; they were left in their natural colour and frequently glazed. 

In the mosaic-like composition we meet, of course, almost exclusively with simple geometrical 
patterns, whereas, in the other kinds of floor-incrustation mentioned above, human figures, animals and 
plants are chiefly represented. Among the plants the lily is most variously idealised, and as in glass- 
painting, the oak and wine leaves which are everywhere repeated. 1 



Fig. 1—8. Engraved stone-flags from the old cathedral at St. Omer, XIII. century (ground brown, 

interior design of horse and horseman filled up with red). 
„ 9 and 10. Mosaic floors of burnt clay, enamelled, from a collection at Dresden (black and red 

centres with white edging) XIII. century. 
„ II and 12. Mosaic floors of burnt clay, enamelled, from the cloister-church Colombe-les-Sens 

(red, black and yellow), XII. century. 
,. 13 and 14. Mosaic floors of burnt clay, enamelled, from the abbey-church at St. Denis (red, 

black and yellow), XII. century. 
„ 15 and 16. Mosaic floors of burnt clay, enamelled, from the old abbey-church at Pontigny, 

XII. century (yellow, red and black on green ground). 
„ 17 — 23. Enamelled clay-tiles from St. Pierre-sur-Dive, XII. century (yellow and black-brown). 
„ 24 and 25. „ „ „ from the church at Bloxham, XIII. century (red and yellow). 

„ 26 and 27. „ „ ^ from Beddington-Church in Surrey, XV. century (red and yellow). 

„ 28. Engraved clay-tiles from the town-hall at Ravensburg (natural colour without glazing), 

XIV. century. 
„ 29. Engraved clay-tiles from a patrician house ibid., XIV. century. 
„ 30. Clay-tiles with deepened ground, natural colour without glazing, XIV. century, from the 

church at Gaildorf. 

„ 31- Clay-tiles with deepened ground and relief- figures from the cloister at Alpirsbach, XII. cent. 



MIDDLE AGES 




Printed by K, Hochajuia, StultyHrt. 



STAINED GLASS 



MIDDLE AGES 



38 



12 



^AAAAMAMMA^AAA 



^ mm i^Km 



t^^ 




9 o 31. 

' ' Printed by E. Hoclidunz, Stuttgart. 



STONE MOSAIC 



Plate 39. 



MIDDLE-AGES. 



WOOD MOSAIC. 



I 



t was no great step from adorning walls and floors with variously coloured materials to a similar 
decoration of wooden objects. Here however, ornamentation was somewhat limited by the nature of wood; 
accordingly vegetable and figural representations are seldom found, at least in the Gothic style, whereas 
we meet most frequently with band and line ornament, in conjunction with a kind of mosaic work, 
consisting of small pieces of wood being arranged as stars, etc. 



Fig. I — 6. From a reading-desk in the cathedral of Orvieto. 

„ 7 and 8. From the stalls of Frari Church at Venice. 

„ 9—17. From the vestry-door in S. Anastasia at Verona. 

„ 18 — 27. From the stalls in the minster at Ulm. 



* <■ > » 



Plate 40. 



MIDDLE-AGES. 



STAINED GLASS. 



w. 



hereas in the Romanesque period 
however in most perfect style, there took 
When the Romanesque style of 
glass-painting, after having prevailed 
far into the Gothic period, was now 
completely superseded, the artists were 
induced to fill up the wide window- 
openings principally with figural or- 
nament. The carpet-patterns, so much 
in favour formerly, were more and 
more employed only as a back -ground 
for the figures, a lofty architecture 
being added. The idealised foliage 



purely ornamental decorations were chiefly executed, these 
place a great change in this regard, during the 14* century. 

and scroll work however, still takes 
its place as a border ; but being treated 
more and more freely later on, it 
frequently degenerates into wild ex- 
travagance. However, besides the 
windows with figural representations, 
we also find some purely ornamented 
a special kind of which, termed "gri- 
sailles", is decorated with a black 
design on colourless glass, other co- 
lours usually being used but sparingly. 





r 
,1 


h- 




3 










9 


6 


1 




9 


10 




|9 




II 










1 


& 




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13 



Fig. I. From a choir-window in the minster of Ulm. 
„ 2 and 3. From the choir- windows of the Frauenkirche at EssHngen. 

4—8. In the National Museum at Munich, formerly in the cathedral of Regensburg. 
,, 9. From a choir-window in the cathedral of Cologne. 

„ 10 and II. From the choir of the cloister-church at Konigsfelden (Switzerland). 
„ 12. From one of the aisle-windows of the upper church S. Francesco at Assisi. 
.,, 13 and 14. F"rom the side-aisle-windows of the lower church ibid. 



MIDDLE AGES 



39 




H. Dolmetsch. 



Printed by Mas Seeger, Slutlgurt. 



WOOD MOSAIC 



MIDDLE AGES 



40 




i'rinted by E. lioclidimz, StuttK^ri. 



STAINED GLASS 



Plate 41. 



MIDDLE-AGES. 



ORNAMENTAL ARCHITECTURE and SCULPTURE. 



I 



n the Gothic style we find throughout (setting aside the degenerations of the latest Gothic period) 
the decorations subordinate to the architecture. Therefore, according to this principle, the ornament nowhere 
predominates over the architectonic structure, it never becomes independent, but serves only to supplement 
harmoniously the impression of the architecture, or to mark out single mouldings according to requirement. 
In this way especially the pointed-arched portal-gates and windows, the boldly-rising towers and turrets, 
the pinnacles etc. etc., the capitals and cornices, the stalls and galleries have ornamental decoration, with 
which also the works of the small art, such as household-furniture and sacred utensils are not at all spa- 
ringly supplied. 

The capitals of the columns represent in most cases only a bell-shaped enlargement of the shaft, 
around which leaves and flowers are wound in a free style (Fig. 15 — 17). In general the employment of 
vegetable decoration is very extended; for instance the crockets on the edges of the gables and tower- 
pyramids are in reality nothing else than leaves freely transformed ; likewise the key-stones of the vaults, 
the consols etc. are very frequently adorned with foliage. 

From the manner of treatment of these leaves and flowers can be determined pretty nearly to 
which period a building or a piece of furniture belongs. For, whereas in the first Gothic period (XIII. cen- 
tury) a full and large treatment prevails, idealising the natural forms, only slightly (Fig. 4, 5, 6, 15, 16, 
21), later on a bolder execution gains ground (Fig. 10 — 12); whilst in the last Gothic period a gradual 
departure from the natural forms is evident, all foliage having a knotty appearane, which produces on the 
one side a certain rigidness (Fig. 8, 9, 22), on the other sometimes a want of repose (Fig. 17, 18, 20). 
This want arises particularly also from the common practice of undercutting the leaves so freely, that 
they appear scarcely affixed, the consequence of which is frequently a too hard change of light and shade. 

The foliage of the native plants is in special favour. Everywhere we meet with the leaves of 
the vine, thistle, oak and beech, of ivy and trefoil, of roses etc., most of these plants being symboli- 
cally used. 

Human figures and animals are often humorously employed in the so-called water-spouts; also 
consols, key-stones and particularly the pediments above the doors are adorned with figural representations. 



Fig. I. Carved figure from the stalls of the Minster at Ulm. 
„ 2. Projecting bracket of a seat-flap (Misericordia) of the same stalls. 
„ 3. Key-stone-decoration from the cathedral at Naumburg. 
„ 4. Projecting bracket of a capital from the church at Gelnhausen. 
,,5. „ „ „ „ „ of French origin. 

„ 6. Finial from Notre-dame at Paris. 
„ 7. Knob of a finial ibid. 

„ 8. Finial from the tabernacle of the former hospital-church at Esslingen. 
„ 9. Crocket from Nuremberg. 

„ 10. „ ,, Cologne Cathedral. 

„ Ti and 12. Hollow-decoration ibid. 

„ 13 and 14. Water-spout ibid. 

„ 15. Capital of French origin. 

„ 16. „ from the cloister of the church at Wimpfen-im-Thal. 

„ 17. „ from the bell-hall of the ,Frauenkirche' at Usslingen. 

„ 18. „ from the font in the ,Marienkirche' at Reutlingen. 

„ 19. Cornice-decoration on the cathedral of Troyes. 

„ 20. Carved and pierced panel of a little shrine-door of French origin. 

„ 21. Hollow-decoration from the church at Wimpfen-im-Thal. 

„ 22. „ „ from Nuremberg. 



-^ »♦♦•*- 



Plate 42. 

MIDDLE-AGES. 

WEAVING, EMBROIDERY, ENAMEL and POLYCHROME 

SCULPTURE. 



We, 



eavings and embroideries, a great number of which were, during the Gothic period, made especially 
in monasteries, followed at first the examples from the South and East (Fig. 11). But this imitation 
was more and more rejected, and preference given to decoration with flowers and leaves, rigorously 
idealised without excluding the figural element. The latter was employed specially in ecclesiastical robes, 
curtains and carpets in churches, where they involved a symbolical meaning. 

If we bear in mind the influence exercised in earlier times by the Byzantine and Arabian art, we 
cannot wonder, that the linear ornament preserved its place in the Italian Gothic style (Fig. 6 — 9. 
Compare also Plate 44, fig. 13, 14, 16, 19). 

Wood or stone sculptures were frequently painted, in which case the patterns of the robes usually 
show the above mentioned motives. 

Fig. 12 and 13 pertain already to the transition of the Gothic to the Renaissance style. 

Enamel was most richly applied to the splendid reHquaries, especially in the 13* century; here, 
however, the Romanesque forms of decoration still prevailed. 



Fig. I 



Statue of St. Simon in the choir of Cologne Cathedral. 



Pattern on the robe of another statue ibid. 
Embroidered fonder of French origin. XIV. century. 

Embroidered stuff (in the original, silver is employed instead of gold). XV. cent. 
„ „ XIV. cent. 

6—9. Borders and patterns of carpets from the wall-paintings in the upper church S. 

Francesco at Assisi. XIV. cent. 
10. Pattern of a carpet from a tempera-painting of Niccolo Alunno (1466) in the pinacotheca 

at Perugia, 
ri. Sicilian weaving from St. Mary's church at Danzig. XIII. cent. 

12. Border of a carpet on the painting of Hugo van der Goes in the Palazzo degli Uffizi 

at Florence! XV. cent. 

^3- « „ „ „ on a picture of Mantegna in S. Zeno at Verona. Close of the 

XV. cent. 

14. Border from an embroidered chasuble. XIV. cent. (German work). 

15 and 16. Patterns of stuffs from the XIV. cent, of French origin. 

1 7. Gilt copper-engraving from the cross-relics-table in the catholic parish-church at Mettlach. 

18—20. Enamelled decorations on the .shrine of the Three Kings in Cologne Cathedral. 

Beginning of the XIII. cent. 
21. Enamelled border from the beginning of the XIII. cent, in the Musee de Cluny. 



MIDDLE AGES 




Printed by Max Seeger, Stuttgart. 



ORNAMENTAL ARCHITECTURE AND SCULPTURE 



MIDDLE AGES 



42 




CJi OJi Cs* C\> Cs* C^i ' 






WEAVING, EMBROIDERY, ENAMEL AND POLYCHROME SCULPTURE 



Plate 43. 



MIDDLE-AGES. 



ILLUMINATION OF MANUSCRIPTS. 



I 



n the illumination of manuscripts the livelier forms of the ornament superseded slowly the round, 
surface-filling forms of the Romanesque style. The flowers were partly idealised, also some direct from 
nature, and Figs. 8 and 13 give us an idea how both kinds of treatment were often combined, especially 
in the later Gothic time. Characteristically of this time is a deep shading, as well as the use of half tones, 
and the laying on of lights. 

Remarkable is the variety and splendour of the colours which represent the abundance and bright- 
ness of the flowers in the miniatures of the venerable manuscripts of that age. 



Fig. I — 4. From the XIV. century. 
„ 5 — 13. With the single leaves and flowers from the XV. century. 



^ <t» ^ 



rl 

i 



Plate 44. 



MIDDLE-AGES. 



CEILING AND WALL PAINTING. 



X 



Lhe further progress in wall-painting in the Gothic period was somewhat impeded 
surfaces sui- 
table to the re- 
ception of lar- 
ger pictures , 
whereas suffi- 
cient opportu- 
nity was given 
for ornament- 
ation. — 
The occurring 
figures were 
influenced by 
the upward 
direction and 
the frequent 
narrowness of 
the space at 
disposal, 
wherefore 
they exhibit 
not seldom a 
tooslenderap- 
pearance. But 
differing from 
the Romanes- 
que figures, 
nearly all of 
them show a 

certain life 
and grace in 
attitude and 
gesture, which 
led, however, 
in the further 




by the want of wall- 
development 
to somewhat 
tortuous and 
mannered post- 
ures. (Com- 
pare Fig.4and 
Plate 42, Fig. 

I.) - The 
folds of the 

robes flow 
softly down in 
long, beautiful 
lines, the out- 
lines of the 

drapery are 

black and 
there occurs 

very little 
shading with 

variegated 

colours. In 

Fig. I shading 

is done with 

black hat- 
ching. Fig. 17 
gives an 

example of 
I the way in 
which the An- 



tique 



begins 
to ascend and 
to lead into 
the Renais- 
^sance. 



I 



Fig. I. 


From 


» 2. 


Portio 


V 3 

>, 5- 


and 4. 
From 


„ 6 
„ 8. 


and 7. 
From 


>■ 9 


and 10. 


., 11- 


-19. 


,, 20 


and 21. 


„ 22. 


(Vide 



a pedigree in the hospital- church at Stuttgart. XV. century 
n of l^ig^ 22 Pamted flat ornament, the ground being deepened, 
l^rom the church at Brauweiler. XIV. cent 
a chapel at Ramersdorf. XIV. cent. 

From a side-room in the collegiate 'church at Fritzlar. XV. cent, 
the Jacobme-church at Agen. XIII. cent 
From the Ste. Chapelle at Paris. XIII.' cent. 

„ upper church San Francesco at Assisi. 
„ „ lower church ibid. 

'ahhft°''.'./'''';i""'"''"°"-^ f °'""'' ^^'^^ °f the wood-baldachin above 
abbot-beat m the convent-church at Blaubeuren. 



the former 



-<>-5*- 



MIDDLE AGES 




Printed by E. Hochdanz, Stutlgart. 



ILLUMINATION OF MANUSCRIPTS 



MIDDLE AGES 



44 




Printed by E. Hochd«uz, Stuttgart- 



CEILING- AND WALL-PAINTING 



Plate 45. 



ITALIAN RENAISSANCE. 



GLASS PAINTING. 



I 



n the Gothic period already, the practise of filling in the window-openings (apertures) entirely with 
coloured glasses, declined more and more. In the place of these came, (especially in the beginning of the 
Rennaissance style,) small glass paintings on colourless ground, which were however encircled with borders 
and framings, often so elaborately ornamented that these seem to form the chief decoration, the subjects 
of which are generally plants and animals, but often also of human figures. Neither are all kinds of sym- 
bolic subjects and figures wanting, as a glance at the annexed plate shows; but these certainly belong 
to a later time of the Rennaissance period. 



Fig. I. From the National Museum in the Bargello at Florence, taken by H. Dolmetsch. 
,, 2 — 8. From the Certosa near Florence (by Giovanni da Udine), taken by Reg.-Banmeister Bork- 

hardt and Architect Eckert in Stuttgart. 



S^ 



I^J^^ 




Plate 46. 



ITALIAN RENAISSANCE. 



POLYCHROME POTTERY. 



I 



t was a natural consequence of the material of glazed clay-plates and of the way of making them, that 
floors and wainscots consisting of such little plates could not present an ornament so minutely and elaborately 
finished as works of metal, marble etc. Therefore, when this "technique" goes beyond the simple geometric 
pattern, the ornaments, which for the most part bear resemblance to Byzantine and Oriental models 
are rather modest, but all the more clear and vigorous. Their effect, however, is still increased by the 
excellent combination of colours, although, in wise moderation, rarely more than 4 colours were used. 

In the manufacture of such tile-floors and wainscot-plates, the school of Delia Robbia attained 
special celebrity, wherefore such plate-mosaics are frequently registered under the name of "Robbian ware". 



Fig. I, 6, 9, II, 12, 13, 14 and 15. Wainscot-plates on the staircaise-walls of the house Nr. 26 
in Via Luccoli at Genoa. 
11 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8 and 10. The same in the house Nr. 10 in Via S. Matteo ibid. 
,, 16 and 17. Floor-plates from San Petronio at Bologna. 



■4. 



ITALIAN RENAISSANCE 



46 




Printed by E. Hochdanz, Stutlgan- 



POLYCHROME POTTERY 



Plate 47. 



ITALIAN RENAISSANCE. 



ORNAMENTAL PAINTING. 



I 



t was at the commencement of the T5th century, that the Renaissance style began to make its appea- 
rance in Italy, and the period till about 1500 may be called the period of Early Renaissance, in contra- 
distinction of High Renaissance which lasted till the middle of the i6th century. 

Renaissance is a new adaptation, not a servile imitation, but a free treatment of antique forms; 
the plainest evidence of this is given by the ornament, of which this style makes a richer and ampler 
use than any other. This applies more particularly to the motives we meet with; and here we observe 
above all the vegetable ornament, which in Early Renaissance generally covers the ground only moderately. 
We find almost everywhere delicate, beautifully curved branches in a symmetrical or at least regular 
arrangement, in which the antique acanthus-leaf acts the principal part, although, not without the most 
various transformations. Also vine, laurel, ivy etc. are frequently employed, partly copying nature directly, 
partly idealised. But this foliage with its branches and fruit is still enlivened by a rich variation of animals, 
fantastical beings, human figures as well as symbolical subjects, arms, masks, emblems, vases, candela- 
bras etc. Most cultivated is the combination of human figures and animals with vegetable elements 
(Fig. 3; compare also plate 45). Finally a not less important part of tlie decoration are coats of arms 
and escutcheons , the latter usually as so-called horse-front-shields (Fig. 6 and 9) in the period of Early 
Renaissance, later on as cartouches. 

All we mentioned hitherto is found in facade-painting, i. e. in those paintings with which the 
fronts of single houses, for want of plastic adornment, were entirely faced, showing either ornaments or 
historical representations. The colours are bright and harmoniously composed, so that a gorgeous impression 
results from such architecture often not only coloured but really painted. From a later period, when the 
many-figured historical representations almost wholly superseded the ornament, one often finds fronts 

painted in bronze-colour or in grisaille. 



Fig. I - 7. From the front of a house in Genoa (Via San Matteo. Nr, 10). 
8. Front of the court of ,Casa Taverna' at Milan. 

o _ 1 1 „ Palazzo Piccolomini at Pienza. 

,, M I I . ,1 1, 11 11 11 



Plate 48. 



1 



ITALIAN RENAISSANCE. 



WOOD MOSAIC. 



Wo, 



ood-carving in general was highly flourishing, as is known, in the Renaissance-period, especially 
however (in the highest degree) one branch of it, termed Intarsia, i. e. inlaid wood-work, with which stalls, 
shrines in vestries etc., were most richly decorated. As far as the represented subjects are concerned 
there is actually no restriction, for we meet with a great variety of complete pictures as well as perspec- 
tive views and ornaments. The latter, for the most part light on dark ground, present us a splendid 
abundance of idealised vegetable motives, mixed or combined with various vases, vessels, living beings etc. 
The arrangement of the scroll-work is strictly symmetrical, at least on regular, framed surfaces, where 
also the acanthus-leaf is in tlie first place made use of, but it is singular to observe, that the points of 
the leaves are influenced by the mode of making them. 

In order to work out more life, sometimes Niello is emplo)^ed next the Intarsia; the ribs of 
the leaves, the hatching etc. are produced by the application of a dark composition. 



Fig. I. From the choir-stalls in S. Anastasia at Verona. 

„ 2. From the dado of the ve.stry-.shrines in S. Maria in Organo ibid. 
„ 3 — 7. From the choir-stalls ibid. 

„ 8. From the choir-stalls in Monte Oliveto maggiore. 

„ 9u. 10. „ ,, ,, ,, in S. Petronio at Bologna. (Ground of the centre-compart- 

ments black). 
„ II — 13. „ „ ,. ^, in the Certosa near Pavia. (In Fig. 12 ground black). 



^^^^ 



ITALIAN RENAISSANCE 



47 



^ 




Printed li.v Max Sceger, Stuttgart. 



ORNAMENTAL PAINTING 



p 



ITALIAN RENAISSANCE 



48 




Printed by E. Iloclidanz, Stuttgart, Geriuauy. 



WOOD -MOSAIC 



Plate 49. 



ITALIAN RENAISSANCE. 



CEILING PAINTING. 



w., 



'ith the ceilings of churches and palaces, whether arched or horizontal wood-ceilings, a rich field of 
activity was opened to the genius of artists. The most distinguished masters did not disdain to improve 
the ornamentation by framing their frescoes with decorations of their own invention (Fig. i and 2). In 
these ornaments, vegetable and animal motives being mixed, the ground is mostly light, the colours them- 
selves being cheerful and bright. — Besides these, however, more simple patterns are not wanting. Where 
figural representations are missing, their place is supplied by painted cassettes or rosettes, edged with 
geometrical ornaments. — It is noticeable how such coloured ornaments are combined with more or less 
simple stucco decorations, the latter however being often, as in Fig. i, strikingly imitated with the brush. 
The two rosettes (Fig. 11 and 12) certainly belong, in respect of their origin, to a period antecedent to 
that of Renaissance, but in their formation they already show an evident affinity with Renaissance itself. 



Fig. 1—4. From the choir-arch in S. Maria del Popolo at Rome. (By Pinturicchio.) 
„ 5. From one of the Borgia chambers in the Vatican at Rome. 
„ 6 and 9. Patterns from the arch-panels in the Certosa near Pavia. 
„ 7 and 10. Borders round these panels. 
„ II and 12 medallions from the arch-panels in S. Francesco at Lodi. 



— ^fes*— 'He 



Plate 50. 



ITALIAN RENAISSANCE. 



LACES. 



T. 



.he art of lace-making, unknown to the ancients, and no doubt, not brought to artistic perfection 
previously to the close of the 15th century, may truly be called a creation of the Renaissance. And it is 
the soil of Italy, principally the two cities of Venice and Genoa, to which we owe the needle-made lace 
as well as the finest kind of pillow-lace. The former (the so-called point) is to be considered as the more 
precious kind. The method of making it — ground and ornament consisting of nothing but an in- 
finity of stitches made a jour — admits of an extremely delicate and graceful formation. But its execution 
requires a very complicated and difficult process, as only small pieces of about 10 cm dimension can be 
made at a time, which, after being done, must be joined so as to form a complete whole, for which reason, 
in designing the patterns, the possibility of a scarcely visible joining of the several parts must be taken 
into account. The most esteemed of the sewed laces is the Venetian point in relief, all leaves, flowers etc. 
which show raised edges. A still higher degree of perfection in this kind of lace is attained in work 
with leaves in high relief (Fig. 7 and 8). The way of making pillow-lace (dentelles) consists in dexterous 
twisting and plaiting of the threads after an ingenious system. As regards the fineness of this pillow- 
lace there are considerable differences in its degree, which exercise the greatest influence on the difficulty 
of the work, as well as on its preciousness. 

The lace-ornament follows closely the other Renaissance ornament, with the only restriction, that 
here, of course, vegetable motives prevail, without exclusion, however, of figural representations, as birds etc. 



Fig. I, 2 and 3. Venetian point lace. 

„ 4, 5 and 6. Venetian point lace in relief. 

„ 7 and 8. Do. with highly raised leaves. 

n 9. Roselina-lace. 

„ 10. Reticella-lace. 

!, II. Italian Guipure. 

M 12. Genoa church-lace. 

i) 13- Collar in Venetian Guipure. 



Needle-made. 




Pillow-made. 



^ 



ITALIAN RENAISSANCE 



49 




Printeil by Max Seeger, Stnttgai-t. 



CEILING PAINTING 



ITALIAN RENAISSANCE 



50 




Printed by Max Seeger, Stuttgart. 



L A C E S^ 



Plate 51. 



ITALIAN RENAISSANCE. 

EMBROIDERY and CARPET WEAVING. 



L 



n accordance with its love of pomp and splendour, the Renaissance period did not fail to express 
this disposition by making skilfully embroidered robes, carpets, etc. Churches especially were richly furn- 
ished with such vestments. 

Embroidery, either applique or flat work, the latter frequently relief-like, took its motives from 
the same sources as the hitherto treated branches of art, and it also united with the mere ornament 
proper images, especially in form of medallions. 

Carpet-weaving, inasmuch as it is not fancy-weaving, but applying geometric or vegetable designs, 
follows in the main features Byzantine and Oriental examples. 

Here also bright colours are in great favour, and especially for embroidered fabrics, gold is used 
everywhere, in accordance with the general inclination for ostentatious display. 



I 



Fig. I. Embroidery on an ecclesiastical mantle in 'S. Croce at Florence'. 

„ 2. Embroidered little velvet cover in the 'Museum vaterlandischer Altertiimer' at Stuttgart. 

„ 3. Embroidered velvet-border from a chasuble, ibid. 

„ 4. Silk-embroidery in applique work from a chasuble, ibid. 

„ 5. Relief-embroidery in gold upon silk from a chasuble, ibid. 

„ 6 and 7. Silk-embroideries in applique work upon dama.sk-ground. 

„ 8. Carpet-border from a Venetian picture at Verona. 

„ 9. Do. from a picture by Paolo Giolfino in the museum, ibid. 

„ 10. Do. „ „ „ by Moroni in the Pinacothec at Munich. 



I 



Plate 52. 



ITALIAN RENAISSANCE. 

SGRAFFITOS, WOOD-MOSAIC, MARBLE-MOSAIC 

AND BASSO RELIEVOS. 



Xhe sgraffito-ornament is not to be considered as a mere flat-ornament, as it shows for the most part 
a tendency to imitate plastic decoration by design, without however having other tones of colour at 
disposal, than black, white and grey, the latter being produced by hatching. 

The process of making sgraffito consists in covering the surface to be decorated with dark stucco, 
which is afterwards white-washed with hme-water. The required designs are then produced by scraping 
away with iron styles, as far as required, the upper coat of white, revealing thereby the dark ground 
underneath. By this simple process sgraffito, in opposition to painted and inlaid ornaments, keeps more 
the character of a design , notwithstanding which , by a judicious distribution of light and shade, some- 
times compositons of a grand and rich effect can be attained. 

On the sgraffito -fronts the plastical mouldings appear only rarely, for often the very frame of 
the architecture is marked by means of sgraffito. 

As regards ornamental flooring we meet in Renaissance art , besides the linear mosaic-ornament 
(as it occurs very similarly in the early Christian and middle ages) with intarsia-marbles and niello-marbles. 
In order to make the former, the cut-out marble pieces are inlaid in the correspondingly hollowed out 
ground, whereas for making niello-marbles, the deepened places are filled up with black or red stucco, or 
sometimes with metal. The coloration of these floor-decorations is always simply treated, whereas the 
designs frequently go beyond the legitimate bounds of ornament, as for instance in the cathedral at Siena, 
the renowned floor of which shows many-figured historical representations, sometimes together with per- 
spective architecture. 

Basso relievos are mostly made without the assistance of coloured contrasts, the ground only 
being made rough, above which the flatly treated ornament rises but a little. 



Fig. I. Sgraffito on a house at Rome. Via Giulia Nr. 82. 

"2. ,, ,, ,. „ ,, ,, Via dei Coronari Nr. 148. 

" 3- !i ,) » ,, ,, ,, Vicolo Calabraga Nr. 31 and 32. 

" 4- !, ,, ,, ,, „ „ Vigna alia via Porta S. Sebastiano Nr. 27. 

" 5>'^"cl6 ,, „ ,, ,, „ ,, Borgo al vicolo del Campanile Nr. 4. 

7. Inlaid marble-Work on the floor of the cathedral at Siena. 

8 and 9. ,, ,, ,, from a tomb-plate in San Giovanni e Paolo at Venice. 

" '°' " " " " " !! ,, ,, „ in Sta. Croce at Florence. 

" "• " " " » >' .. ,, ,, ,, in the Frari-church at Venice. 

I2andi3. Basso relievos from tomb-plates in Sta. Maria del Popolo at Rome. 

I4andi5. „ „ from the tomb of Vendramin in San Giovanni e Paolo at Venice. 



ITALIAN RENAISSANCE. 



51 




Printed by E. Hochdanz, Stuttgart. 



EMBROIDERY AND CARPET WEAVING. 



ITALIAN RENAISSANCE 



52 




Printed by E. Hochdanz, Stuttgart. 



SGRAFFITOS, WOOD-MOSAIC, MARBLE-MOSAIC AND BASSO RELIEVOS 



Plate 53. 



ITALIAN RENAISSANCE. 

CEILING AND WALL PAINTING. 



V^rnamental wall-and ceiling painting of High-Renaissance is represented in its highest beauty and 
dignity by the works of Raffaelle and his school, especially in the Loggia of the Vatican. Although 
a great part of those paintings are not from his own hand, yet they were carried out by his pupils after 
the master's designs, and in his spirit. We cannot fail to recognize however, that the Thermae of Titus, 
shortly before detected at Rome, exercised a great influence, especially the union of stucco with marble; 
but these classic examples not only instigated the master to imitation, but they incited him also to 
create new variations of motives for figures , garlands etc. Thus the Vatican presents to the spec- 
tator a grand richness of paintings, in which the figures and ornaments, decoration and architecture, 
and more particularly the colours, are balanced in the nicest proportions. — Remarkable is the prevalence 
of secondary colours. (Fig. 2.) 

To a pupil of Raffaelle also, the paintings in the Palazzo Doria at Genoa are to be ascribed. 
Although they do not equal the superiority of Raffaelle's works, yet they are throughout beautiful in their 
details, and prove especially an eminent ingenuity in combining the colours. — 

Concerning the motives employed, compare the above with plate 45 and ff. 



Fig. I. Ceiling-painting in the Palazzo Doria at Genoa. 
,, 2. Pilaster-decoration from the Loggie of the Vatican at Rome. 
„ 3 and 4. Panels in a window-niche in the Vatican Museum, ibid. 



^^IHH^* 



Plate 54. 



ITALIAN RENAISSANCE. 



ILLUMINATION, WEAVING and MARBLE-MOSAIC. 



Th. 



.he invention of the art of printing was of the most important consequence for the illumination of 
manuscripts. For in proportion as the multiplication of literary productions became easier and simpler 
and hence their market-price considerably cheaper, so much less labour was bestowed upon the artistic 
decoration by painting, particularly since the new art offered also the means of producing beautiful initials 
and title pages. Notwithstanding we find, even at that time, many artists occupied in illumination; 
for in the period of Renaissance the printing of books did not embrace all branches of literature, and 
even in printed books a title executed by hand, or initials sigularly decorated, especially with different 
colours , were still favoured by the public. Therefore that period gives us still many e.xamples of fine 
illumination, presenting frequently a varied mixture of antique, mythological and Christian motives. The 
vegetable arabesques of the initials, as well as the leaves and flowers, show us fewer natural than con- 
ventionally idealised forms. 

However, decidedly natural are these forms in the most carefully (and with infinite diligence) 
executed mosaics, composed of smaller and larger marble pieces of the mostvarious colours. With 
such decorations table-slabs, chests etc. were embellished, and at Florence this technique is still culti- 
vated with success up to the present day. 

The greatest affinity with the traditional ornament is manifest in weaving, which, without keeping 
clear of modern influences, preferred going back to Oriental models. Compare Plate 51. 



Fig. I — 6. Paintings from divers manuscripts. 

,, 7. Velvet-stuff in the 'Museum vaterlandischer Altertiimer' at Stuttgart. 

„ 8. Border from a silk-stuff. 

„ 9. Marble-mosaic from a table in the National Museum at Munich. 



^•'— ^->7+ 



nr 



^^^^-i^ 



ITALIAN RENAISSANCE 



53 



1 




Primed l>y Max^ Seeger, StuHsai'l 



CEILING- AND WALL-PAINTING 



ITALIAN RENAISSANCE 



54 




ILLUMINATION, WEAVING AND MARBLE-MOSAIC 




I 



Plate 55. 



ITALIAN RENAISSANCE. 



POTTERY PAINTING. 



T„ 



he earthenware called 'majolica' in all probability derives its name from the island of Majorca, where 
glazed pottery was extensively manufactured, especially by the Moors, and whence this art found its way 
into Italy. In our days the term 'majolica' is generally applied to all finer fayence-ware, when executed 
with more care than coarser pottery i. e. to such earthenware, the mains substance of which is potter's 
clay covered with nontransparent glaze, and coloured. There were two ways of glazing pottery; either 
the vessel of clay (terra-cotta) after having received the required shape, was burnt, then plunged into a 
fluid not transparent, tin-glazing and immediatly afterwards painted, then finally burnt again , or, since 
the mentioned process remained for a long time the secret of single masters, one chose the following way: 
the rude earthen object was covered with a thin layer of white pipe-clay , and only after that the trans- 
parent lead-glazing was put on. 

Tin-glazing is believed to have been invented by Lucca della Robbia, who towards the close of 
the 15th century effected thereby a total change in the fayence-technique. The numerous splendid 
reliefs created by members of this artist's family attained high celebrity. 

Up to the present day, the Italian majolicas of the Renaissance period excite our well-deserved 
admiration, not only on account of the noble forms of the various vessels, but chiefly for the paintings 
they are covered with. Those clay-formers and clay-painters were masters of their branch, and although 
the ready sale of their productions induced many of them to manufacture rather mechanically, yet all 
these objects manifest a fine feeling of artistic form and sublime beauty. 

As regards the colours used, blue, green, yellow, orange and violet prevail, as already above said. 
Many vessels exhibit a rich pearly lustre , other pieces a comparatively rare red and other colours, 
marks which point to a certain master, or a certain manufactory. 

On these dishes, plates, etc. not only scroll work, single figures, etc. were represented, but even 
copies or free transformations of whole images and pictures by famous masters, frequently and in preference 
so that these pictorial representations covered the whole vessel, the borders of the dishes etc. 



Fig. 1. Lower termination of a Madonna-relief by the Robbia-school. 

„ 2. Surface-pattern on the vestry-fountain in the church St. Maria novella at Florence. 

,^ ■ 3 — 5. Border-decorations on dishes from the manufactory at Faenza. 
Belly-decoration on a handled vase from the same. 
Profile-decorations on a vase from the same. 
Profile-decoration on an inkstand from the same. 
Border-decorations on dishes from the same. 
Do on dishes from the manufactory at Chaffagiolo. 

,, Gubbio. 
,, Urbino. 
Divers vessels from the manufactory at Urbino. 
Dish from the manufactory at Pesaro. 



i 6. 

7-9- 
10. 

It — 13. 

14-19. 
20. 

21 — 23. 

24-27. 
28. 



29. Border-decoration on a dish from the manufactory at Pesaro. 



««— 5^' 



Plate 56, 



ITALIAN RENAISSANCE. 



PLASTIC ORNAMENTS in MARBLE und BRONZE. 



M. 



. arble-sculpture revived with a 
tween High Renaissance and Early 
and scroll-work as well as of the 
a close affinity with those of 
the Corinthian ordre; but the 
volutes are now frequently 
replaced by vegetable motives, 
mostly however by dolphins, 
dragons, cornucopiae etc. In 
this very point the eminent 
productivity of the Renaissance 
manifests itself principally. 
Also figural adornment of the 
capitals is not wanting. The 
acanthus-leaf however appears 
more scantily, usually only in 
one row. With High Renais- 
sance begins then a time, 



vigour never known in former times. There exists this difference be- 
Renaissance , that the former liked strong intersections of the flower 
figural element. The capitals show, especially in Early Renaissance 

where the artists more closely 
followed the antique orders, 
which all revive in this period. 
It was the bronze-tech- 
nique which in point of mo- 
delling overstepped nearly all 
limits, the consequence of 
which wa as direct imitation 
of nature, especially in the 
vegetable ornament. 

How the flourishing of 
art influenced even common 
objects in a high degree, is 
shown by the two fine door- 
knockers. 




Fig. 9. 



Fig- I- Door-lintel with marble-frieze in the Palazzo Uucale at Urbino. XV. century. 

,, 2. Frieze on a marble-chimney ibid. 

3. Console-capital of marble from the church Fonte Giusta at Siena. XV. cent, (close). 

„ 4. Frieze on a tomb. 

„ 5. Door-frame of bronze from the Ghiberti Gate of the Baptistery at Florence. 

„ 6. Panel of a pilaster-strip in marble from the altar in the church Fonte Giusta at Siena. 

„ 7 and 8. Door-knockers of bronze. 

„ 9. Capital of a column from the portal of the Badia at Florence. 



ITALIAN RENAISSANCE 



55 




Primed by E. Hochdaiiz, Stuttgart. 



POTTERY PAINTING 



ITALIAN RENAISSANCE 




Primed by Mm Seeger, Stuttgarl. 



PLASTIC ORNAMENTS IN MARBLE AND BRONZE 



f 



Plate 57. 



ITALIAN RENAISSANCE. 



CEILING AND WALL-PAINTING. 



I. 



I 



[t is about the year 1540 that the period of the so-called Late Renaissance begins. Its pecularities 
on the domain of decorative art are demonstrated especially in Figs, i and 9 — 11. We find no more the 
same charm and grace as in the creations of Early and High Renaissance, but some cool, rather calculating 
feature pervades the whole treatment. The beautiful harmonious union of the figural with the vegetable 
element, as well as the nicely balanced proportion of the colours to each other are somewhat decaying. 
The larger admission of white surfaces makes a dry and barren impression upon the spectator. The 
vegetable ornament is less elaborately finished, its place being often taken by elements, from which 
ater on the so-called cartouches were developed, and most of the figures do not show to advantage by 
their artificial composition. Neither in the disposition of the ornament over the field to be decorated, 
is the perfection of the previous epoch of art within this domain attained. 
Compare also plate 45. 



I 



Fig. I. Tympanum from the Sala Ducale in the Vatican at Rome. 

„ 2 — 5. Details from the Loggie of Raffaelle ibid. 

,, 6. Severey above the fountain-hall of the Villa di Papa Giulio at Rome. 

„ 7 and 8. Plafond-borders in the same Villa. 

,. pandio. Pilaster-panels from a chapel in S. Maria Aracelli at Rome. 

„ II. Arch-panel from the cloister of the monastery S. Maria sopra Minerva at Rome. 



^^1 



I 




Plate 58. 



ITALIAN RENAISSANCE. 

VORKS IN PRECIOUS METALS WITH PAINTINGS 

IN ENAMEL. 



J. he works in precious metals comprise two kinds: on the one side those objects, which, being made 
of precious metals, were still decorated in a particular manner with precious stones, pearls and enamel 
(for instance jewelry); on the other those by which any rare mineral, such as lapis lazuli, onyx, etc., or a 
beautifully formed glass were made into a vessel or utensil of luxury, by the application of a handle, foot, 
cover etc. For both kinds, Benvenuto Cellini was the leading master about the middle of the i6th century. 

The colours chosen are harmoniously combined. The noble vessels , especially their handles and 
lids, gave ample opportunity to represent a profusion of elegant lines and beautiful forms. Plants, animals, 
human figures , frequently in the most strange compositions , by far preponderate over the purely geo- 
metric ornament. 

On the whole French Renaissance follows in metal-work of this kind, at least during the i6th century, 
the Italian style, for it was by Italian artists, that the new style was introduced into France. The change 
proceeded slowly, of course, in the native country of the Gothic style, which accounts for the fact that 
many features of the pointed art remained, or that the artists who had divested themselves of the latter, 
fell into a rather arbitrary practise. 



^ 



Fig. 



I. Crowning of a little altar in the Galerie d'Apolion of the Louvre at Paris (Ital. work). 



2. From a vase of lapis lazuli in the Galleria degli Uffizi at Florence 

3. Cover of a crystal cup in enamelled gold, ibid. 
4 and 5. Pendants by Benvenuto Cellini. 

6 — 8. Pendants by an unknown master. 

9 and 10. Handles on vessels in the Galerie d'Apolion of the Louvre at Paris. 

II and 12. Masks on a shield, ibid. 

13 and 14. Foot and upper portion of a water-jug, ibid. 

15 — 19. Borders on vessels in the same collection. 



(do.) 
(do.) 
(do.) 
(French work.) 
(do.) 
(do.) 
(do.) 
(do.) 



* <♦> » 




ITALIAN RENAISSANCE 



57 



^ 




Printed by K. Hochdanz, StuUgiirt. 



CEILING- AND WALL-PAINTING 



ITALIAN AND FRENCH RENAISSANCE 



58 









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Printed by K. Hoclidanz, Stuttpart. 

WORKS IN PRECIOUS METALS WITH PAINTINGS IN ENAMEL 



Plate 59. 

FRENCH RENAISSANCE. 

TYPOGRAPHIC ORNAMENTS. 



A, 



Llready towards the end of the 15 th century, French printers, especially at Paris and Lyon, were highly 
renowned for the carefulness and beauty of their prints. Yet they had not their own ways in forming 
initials, flourishes etc., until Torj^, so well deserved of French book- ornamentation, released his countrymen 
from their slavish dependence on Italian models, by offering them original decorations of his own inven- 
tion. They still clung for a long time, far into the 16 A century, to the Gothic forms; even when the 
nobility of France had been made acquainted with the Italian renaissance by travelling or by foreign 
artists, still the firm attachment to the old style impeded the development of a specific French renaissance 
ornament so much, that Italian (and German) examples prevailed almost throughout (Fig. i). Then, about 
1520, that change was inaugurated b}' Tor3^ His ornaments, consisting mainly of flowers and foliage, 
sometimes united with figural representations, are simple lines, in initials for the most part, white on black 
o-round (Fig. 2) and not shaded. In this method he follows the Italian custom. — His mode of represen- 
tation and his forms survived him for a long time. 

Nevertheless Italy continued to exercise a certain amount of influence, a proof of which we have 
in the "puttini", or chubby boys, as well as in initials directly borrowed from Italian masters (Fig. 14). 

The graceful elegance of the French renaissance ornament is especially obvious in Figs. 9 — 11, 
where however we are reminded of Arabian ornaments, as in Fig. 2 of Gothic ones. Figs. 6 and 12 show 
acanthus elegantly applied. 

F'ig. 4 exhibits the manner in which titles of books or whole pages were decorated. 



Fig. I 



Initial from the time of Fouis XII. by Tory. 
„ Frangois I. „ 

„ „ Claude Garamont. 
Cartouche from the time of Henri II. by Jean Goujon. 

Inttial ,. „ „ ,, „ :, ,1 3, ■: 



.5 

5 
6 

7 and 8. Initials „ 
9 — II. Borders „ 
12. Initial „ 

13- 

15. Tail-piece „ 



„ „ from Salomon Bernard's school. 

„ „ by Petit Bernard. 
„ III.,, John Tornesius. 

„ IV. 

Louis XIII. 




Kig. 15. 



Plate 60. 



FRENCH RENAISSANCE. 



BLOCK PRINTING and EMBROIDERY. 



w. 



ith the term "block printing" we designate the printing or stamping of a certain repeated pattern 
on stuff. In Fig. i, 2, 4 the design is raised like high -relief, whilst in Fig. 3 the outlines project but 
little above the ground. 

The rather hard treatment of the acanthus leaf in Figs, i and 4, the arbitrary arrangement of the 
decoration in Fig. i and the super-abundance in Fig. i — 3 demonstrate at once the later origin of these 
designs, whilst the simple and, when compared with the other ornaments, noble treatment of the embroidery 
betrays much more the connexion with the antique. 



Fig. I, 2 and 4. Patterns in relief-printing, XVII. century. 
„ 3. Pattern in flat printing, XVII. century. 

,, 5. Border on an embroidered carpet in the Musee du Louvre, XVI. cent. The ground- 
pattern of this carpet follows in Plate 64. 
In all these Figures yellow means gold. In Fig. 3 the original has grey-violet instead of red. 



^"— ^/7i-h 



s^'-W 



FRENCH RENAISSANCE 



i 


^S 


1 


i 


^^% 


i 


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^^^tk^ 


if 


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Printed by Max Seeger, Stuitgai-r. 



TYPOGRAPHIC ORNAMENTS 



FRENCH RENAISSANCE 



60 




Printed by K. Hoclidauz, Stuttgan. 



BLOCK PRINTING AND EMBROIDERY 



Plate 6 1. 



FRENCH RENAISSANCE. 



CARPET PAINTING. 



ihe carpet-like painting of dwelling-rooms, so much favoured in the Gothic period, was carried forward 
into the Renaissance. But even here, notwithstanding a frequent going back to antique forms, the Gothic 
tradition breaks out very often, or Oriental influences impede the development of a pure renaissance. 

Usually the painting was done in such way, that about the two lower thirds of the walls were 
covered with a fuller and heavier pattern, the upper portion with a simpler and lighter one (compare 
FiCT. 3 and 4). Scroll-work, where it occurs, is nearly always much idealised; the paraphs (initials) of the 
sovereigns as well as crowns, and the lily, (the royal insignia of France), recur most frequently in this 
ornament. — Regarding coloration the secondary and tertiar)' colours are in favour; gold is frequently used. 



Fig. I — 9. Painted carpet-patterns in the Castle at Blois from the time of Frangois I. 
(By mistake Fig. 6 was drawn upside down.) 



Plate 62. 



FRENCH RENAISSANCE. 



PLASTIC ORNAMENTS in STONE and WOOD. 



1 n sculpture French rcnais,sance appears clearer of strange ingredients than in other departments. 
Especially in the first time the ornament shows a fine and noble treatment of low and high reliefs, being 
almost without exception mixed ornament, in which the cartouches (framed tablets) play a conspicuous 
part, their forms being adaptable to the most various shapes. In Early Renaissance the cartouches are 
still treated in a rather simple way, later on, however, they become richer and rolled up bolder on their 
edges. — The acanthus-leaf is in as great favour as in Italian renaissance, and treated lighter or harder 
according to the time. 

The shafts of the pilasters and columns are richly adorned ; the capitals often exhibit peculiar 
compositions, sometimes overloaded, it is true, but frequently by no means wanting a certain elegance. 



Fig. I. Pilaster-capital from a chimney in the Hotel La.sbordes at Toulouse (Frangois 1.). 
„ 2. Carved panel on the wainscot of the gallery of Frangois I. in the castle at Fontaincblcau. 
Carved panel-ornament from a door in the Justice-palace at Dijon (Frangois I. till Henri II.). 
Torus-decoration in the chapel of the Castle at Anet (Henri II.). 

5. Decoration of a window-frame on the Louvre at Paris (Henri II.). 

6. Wood-rosette from the gallery of Henri II. in the Castle at Fontainebleau. 

7. Rosette from a chimney in the Castle at Anet (Henri II.). 
Herma from the Hotel dAssezat at Toulouse (Henri II.). 

Panel on a chimney in the Museum of the Hotel de Cluny at Paris (Henri II.). 
Wood-carved panel on a door of the chapel near the Castle at Anet (Henri II.). 
Capital from the baptistery of Louis XIII. in the Castle at Fontainebleau. 



0- 

4- 



8. 
9- 



10. 
II. 



•»:i>^5^j 



FRENCH RENAISSANCE 




Priuterl by K. Hoclidiiiiz, Htiitlgart, Germany 



CAPxPET PAINTING 



H RENAISSANCE 




Ptinted bv 



■ Seoger, Stuttgart, German 



PLASTIC ORNAMENTS IN STONE AND WOOD 



Plate ,613:* 



FRENCH RENAISSANCE. 



CEILING-PAINTING. 



I. 



.n this plate span-ceilings only are taken into consideration, the character of which is entirely preserved 
by the applied painting. Each single beam has a special painting, several of them together forming a 
pattern regularly repeated (Fig. i, 3, 5). The lateral faces of the beams have generally only one tone; 
the connecting beams however, are distinguished by a rich decoration on the sides and on the under face 
(Fig. 2, 4 and 6 — 8). 

The vegetable ornament shows sometimes a decided going back to the antique; the figural ele- 
ment is also frequently employed. . . 



Fig. I and 3. Painted ceilings of timbers in the Castle at Blois (Francois T.). 

„ I and 4. Painted binding-beams on the same ceilings. 

„ 5. Painted span-ceiling in the Castle at Wideville (Louis XIIL). 

.„ 6., 7 and 8. Painted binding-beams on the same ceiling. 



Plate 64. 



FRENCH RENAISSANCE. 



WEAVING EMBROIDERY AND BOOK-COVERS. 



V_jreat care used to be bestowed on the binding of books, according to their importance; their 
covers were decorated in two ways : either a continuous pattern spread over the surface of the cover, 
whilst only the corners were specially splendidly distinguished , a small shield in the middle being 
sometimes added; or the ornament constitutes a many-membered whole with tendril-work and geometric 
elements alternately. The small shield in the middle with the library-mark, the book-title, or the name of 
the owner, generally occurs here too. Fig. 4 and 5 represent the former way. Fig. 6 and 7 the latter, which 
however is rather too profuse. During the period of good style, the ornament in work of this kind is, 
almost throughout, treated as flat-ornament. 



Fig. I. Silk weaving (close of the XVII. century). 
,, 2. Silk-weaving (midst of the XVI. century). 
„ 3. Embroidered carpet in the Musee du Louvre (XVI. century). The border belonging 

to it see Plate 60, Fig. 5. 
,, 4 and 5. Corner-pieces of a book-cover made of red morocco (Henry III.). 
,, 6. A book-cover from the beginning of the XVII. century 
,, 7. The same from the close of the XVI. century. 



FRENCH RENAISSANCE 



63 




Printed by 10. HoclidHuz, Stullgart, Germany. 



CEILING-PAINTING 



n 





'■rintad by E. Hochdnni, Stortgnrl. 



WF.AVTNG FATRT^OinFT^Y AMH 



yjP'Q'^ 



Plate 65. 



FRENCH RENAISSANCE. 

WALL-PAINTING, POLYCHROME SCULPTURE, WEAVING 

AND BOOK-COVERS. 



V_yn this plate the difference between Earlier and Later French Renaissance is most striking. Whereas 
Figs. I and 2 show an elegant but moderate movement, Figs. 3 and 4 even a certain rigidness of the 
rather hard forms, in Fig. 8 on the contrary all is activity and lively motion, the garlands themselves 
seeming to wave in the wind. Besides, the arrangement and combination of the single groups, as well 
as the excessive profusion of figural motives, point to a time when the principle of wise moderation did 
no longer prevail in the artistic productions. This want of fine restriction appears also in the two book- 
covers (Figs. 6 and 7), which exemplify another kind of decoration than the one represented on plate 64, 
Figs. 4-7. 

In Figs. 2—5, 10 and 11 we recognize, that, in painting plastic ornaments few colours were used, 
that however gold always predominated. In stucco-decorations the latter was often the only colour used, 
set off at the utmost by a coloured ground. (Compare Figs. 10 and 11.) 



i 



I 



Fig. I. Painted frieze on both sides of a chimney in de Hotel d'Aluie at Blois. -Style of Louis XII. 

(I. half of the XVI. century.) 
„ 2. Wood-carved panel from the Castle at Gaillon. Style Louis XII. (I. half of the XVI. cent.) 
„ 3 and 4. Carved and painted girder-panels on a ceiling in Assize-court at Dijon. Style of 

Frangois I. (I. half of the .XVI. cent.) 
„ 5. Carved and painted ceiling-panel from the Diana-chamber in the Castle at Anet. Style of 

Henri II. (Middle of the XVI. cent.) 
„ 6 and 7. French-book-covers. (II. half of the XVI. cent) 
„ 8. Painted wall-panel in the library of the arsenal at Paris. Style of Henri IV. — Louis XIII. 

(I. half of the XVII. cent.) 
„ 9. Painted wall-frieze from the Castle at Fontainebleau. Style of Louis XIII. (I. half of the 

XVII. cent.) 
„ 10. and II. Painted stucco-friezes from the Galerie dApollon in the Louvre at Paris (by Berain). 

Style of Louis XIV. (II. half of the XVII. cent.) 
„ 12. Border from a Gobelin (by le Brun). Style of Louis XIV. [II. half of the XVII. cent.) 



Plate 66. 



FRENCH RENAISSANCE. 



GOBELINS. 



We 



e have pointed out before, that the windows, painted in imitation of carpets, owe their origin to the 
custom of covering the openings for the day-light with carpets. In course of time the wall-surfaces, 
treated in the same manner, in order to give them a more comfortable appearance, were likewise adorned 
with colours, i. e. with pictures or simple designs. Meanwhile however, the use of carpets for such pur- 
poses was not entirely dispensed with, and especially, since the i6tli. century such wall-decorating carpets 
again found favour in the houses of the wealthy, all the more since the hangings of wool, woven in the 
Netherlands , and embellished with various figural representations , were sold all over the world and quite 
superseded the silk or linen tapestry. Also in France, under Louis XIV. such a manufactory of tapestry 
was established by Gobelin brothers, from whom the tapestries woven there, and afterwards all fabrics of 
this kind were named, 'Gobelins'. 

Although this manufacture is a very difficult and troublesome one, yet a glance at our plate, shows 
that in point of fact this mode of painting does not either, in respect of colours or of forms, meet with 
invincible obstacles. 



Fig. I — 3. Borders on a tapestry carpet after Le Brun (made 1665 — 72) 
„ 4—6. Border from a tapestry after Noel Coypel (made 1670 — 80). 
-, 7- li " 11 I, of the XVI. century. 



FRENCH RENAISSANCE 



65 




Prinled by K. Huchdaiiz, StuU-;.rt. 



WALL-PAINTING, POLYCHROME SCULPTURE, WEAVING AND BOOK COVERS. 



FRENCH RENAISSANCE 




Printed by li. IK.H.di.uz, Stiitt^-nil 



GOBELINS. 



I 




Plate 67. 

FRENCH RENAISSANCE. 

ENAMEL ON METAL, POTTERY PAINTING 

AND METAL-MOSAIC. 



I 



t was at Limoges that enamel-painting attained a high degree of perfection. Figs, i — 10 show us 
not only smaller and simpler gold-decorations, but also complicated scroll-work, even figural representations, 
painted in this way, the choice of colours being almost unlimited. 

The difiference in the productions of our period and those of the middle ages consists chiefly in 
the circumstance that the metal, forming the underground, was not visible. Most frequently we find enamel 
painted in grisaille, gold being always put on, whilst coloured representations, when required, were exe- 
cuted with semi-transparent vitrifiable pigments. 

Figs. II and 12 represent two fayence gable-heads very much favoured, especially in palaces, as 
a finish of gables, towers etc. 

Among the fayence-painters of the i6th century Bernard Palissy, of whose works we give some 
specimens in Figs. 13 — 18, was of great importance for French ornamentation. The decorations of his 
fayences are not flat, but consist in brilliantly coloured reliefs of a warm and vigorous tone. He brought 
in fashion especially those plates , on which various animals of the water, earth and air are painted with 
remarkable fidelity to nature. But complete pictures also owe him their origin. Finally his ornaments, 
executed in but few colours, are to be reckoned among the most graceful of French Renaissance. 

A century and a half after Palissy another artist attained a certain celebrity at the French court, 
viz. Andre Charles Boule, cabinet-maker to King Louis XVI. He had a special skill in decorating objects 
of any kind with inlaid-work. From him marquetry composed of different metals, mother-of-pearl, ivory, 
tortoise-shell, fine woods etc. is commonly called Boule-Work. (Fig. 21.) 



Fig. I — 10. Decorations on Limoges-vessels (copper-enamelling), Fig. i in private possession. 

Fig. 2 from the Galerie d'Apollon in the Louvre at Paris. Fig. 3 and 4 in the 

Bavarian National Museum at Munich. 
,, II and 12. Fayence gable-heads. 
„ 13 — 18. Decorations on fayence vessels by Bernard Palissy. From the Musee du Louvre at 

Paris and in private possession. 
,; 19 and 20. Borders on fayence plates from Rouen. 
„ 21. Little Boule-chest in the Musee du Louvre at Paris. 



Plate 68. 



FRENCH AND GERMAN RENAISSANCE. 



ORNAMENTS ON WOOD and METALS ETC. 



J. he productions of the arti.sans of that period have a singular charm, art taking a lively part in the 
decoration of manufactures. We see arms, little chests, articles of every-day-life etc., most variou.sly 
ornamented, either by inlaying of ivory etc., when they are made of wood, or mostly by engraving and 
etching when made of metal. 

To Fig. i8 — 21 may be observed, that the so-called fayences (named also Henri-Deux-ware) from 
the approximate time of their origin derive their name from a French castle, where this earthenware was 
made during the first half of the i6ih century. Its pecularity is, that the ornaments and figures are traced 
on the surface, as in niello, the ground probably having been deepened according to circumstances either 
by a mould or by an instrument, whereupon the deepenings were filled up with a mass mostly yellow 
and brown coloured. 



Fig. I. Boule work from a clock in the "Museum vaterlandischer Altertiimer" at Stuttgart (French). 
2 and 3. Inlaid wood work of ebony and ivory from a table ibid. (German). 
4. Inlaid wood work from a tent-bed in the golden hall at Urach (German). 
5 and 6. Inlaid wood work on a wall-deepening in the palace of justice at Dijon (French). 
7. Inlaid wood work from a chest at Ravensburg (German). 

Silver inlaid work on a golden bumper in the Royal treasury at Munich (German). 

Inlaid ivory work on a pistol in the Royal Historical Museum at Dresden (German). 

Low relief from a tent-bed in the golden hall at Urach (German). 

Do. from a wooden frame with gilt ground in the Musee de Cluny at Paris (French). 

Motive for etched or engraved work by Peter Flotner (German). 

Iron etched work on a padlock from the Collegiate Church Heiligenkreuz in the "K. K. 

osterr. Museum f. K. und I." at Vienna (German). 
Iron etched work on a saw in the Royal Historical Museum at Dresden (German). 
15 and 16. Small borders on the cover of a little gilt silver chest, by Wenzel Jamnitzer in 

the Royal treasury at Munich (German). 
17. Motive for etched or engraved work (unknown German master). 
18 and 19. Small borders on Oiron vessels in the Musee du Louvre at Paris (French). 
20 and 21. Surface patterns on Oiron vessels ibid. (French). 



8. 

9- 
10. 
II. 
12. 
13- 

14. 



vtfH^« 



» 



FRENCH RENAISSANCE 



67 




Priuted by K. Hocbdanz, Stuttgart 



ENAMEL ON METAL, POTTERY PAINTING AND METAL-MOSAIC. 



I 



FRENCH AND GERMAN RENAISSANCE 



^s 




fcinteii by 1.. llochdiinz, 8tii)i;,-art, G.-riiuinv 



ORNAMENTS ON WOOD AND METALS ETC. 



Plate 69. 

GERMAN RENAISSANCE. 

CEILING AND WALL-PAINTING, WOOD-MOSAIC 

AND EMBROIDERY. 



A> 



Llthough German Renaissance, taking its own way, deviates still more from the antique than Italian 
and French did, yet there are always traces, (and often very clear ones), visible, which lead back to the 
mother-land of Renaissance. Figs. 2 — 5, for instance, show unquestionably Italian influence, which however 
may easily be explained by the fact, that the authors of those paintings travelled to Italy to study there. 
So amongst others, A. Durer took a longer sojourn in Italy to become acquainted with the new style 
in its birth-place. — 

In these paintings generally light and gay tones are chosen upon an entirely or nearly uncoloured 
ground, their character bearing much resemblance to old Roman decorations. The same is to be said 
of Fig. I. Probably the author of these and other similar decorations in the Fugger-house was an Italian 
master, called by the rich Fugger from Italy according to the custom of that time , and charged with 
decorating his grandly built house. 

Fig. 6 gives a specimen of that inlaid-work so frequently found , which commands the Just 
admiration of our time by the charming designs as well as the exquisite elegance of the ornaments , by 
the inexhaustible variety of motives and the amazing patience and labour bestowed upon it. In these 
objects too, the artists set a high value on effective coloring, the shades being burnt in. 

In the middle portion of this figure we observe a form of ornamentation peculiar to German 
Renaissance and deriving its origin no doubt, from the art of smithing which then was most flourishing; 
for we see flat metal-work with its rivets and nails directly imitated, and the bands, into which the 
imitated sheet-metal runs out, frequently elaborated into idealised foliage, or curved and rolled up. 

Concerning linen embroidery, it is not unknown how carefully it was fostered in the German family. 
Great artists themselves, such as Holbein father and son, did not disdain to support this branch of art- 
industry by designs of their own hands. 



Fig. I. Wall-painting from the bath-rooms in the Fugger-house at Augsburg. 
„ 2, 3 and 5. Do. in the knights' hall of the Trausnitz at Landshut. 
„ 4. Ceiling-painting ibid. 

„ 6. Wood inlaid work from the cover of a little chest. 
„ 7. Embroidered border on a linen cover. 



Plate 70. 



GERMAN RENAISSANCE. 

STAINED GLASS PAINTING. 



G. 



rlass-painting is to a certain degree an exception from the general flourish of art-industry during the 
time of Renaissance. Although in town-halls and guild-rooms, in the castles of the nobility and the houses 
of citizens glass-panes painted with coats of arms, symbolical or historical representations etc., were 
often found, and as a rule beautifully executed, yet this art vanishes more and more from the sphere 
most favourable to its development, viz. the erection of churches; later on, however, the glass-painters, 
sedulously striving to get the start of painting proper, were misled into great figural compositions, which 
are, strictly speaking, quite opposed to the true principles of this art. 

However it still confines itself to its limits i. e. in the glass-paintings of the Chapel in the Royal 
residence at Munich. Serving principally for decorative purposes, they are of great beauty in spite of a 
certain tendency towards naturalism. 



Figs. 1—3. Glass-paintings from the dome of the rich Chapel in the Royal residence at Munich. 



1 




GERMAN RENAISSANCE. 



v6.9 




Prinleii Ly E. HucLdoiiz, Stuttgart, Germany- 



CEILING AND WALL-PAINTING, WOOD-MOSAIC AND EMBROIDERY. 



GERMAN RENAISSANCE. 



70 




Priuted by K. Hochdanz, Stultgnrt, Germ:uiv 



STAINED GLASS PAINTING. 



Plate 71. 



GERMAN RENAISSANCE. 



METAL-WORK. 



O. 



"iir entire plate is devoted to one special branch of metal-work embracing such numerous objects, viz. 
productions of the armourers. Many weapons and armours, the surfaces of which are, with marvellous 
ingenuity and endless variety, decorated with scroll-work, frame-work and strap-work, were for this reason 
for a long time believed to be works of the greatest Italian masters, who were thought to have made them 
chiefly at the French court. Some years ago, however, the surprising discovery was made, that the 
most and very finest of these objects were of German origin, German masters, above all, having been called 
by Francis I. and Henry IT. for that purpose to France. 

Part of these harnesses, shields, helms etc. are most splendidly decorated with complete figural 
representations, others with single figures, animals, birds, mythical beings as well as with flowers and scroll- 
work; later on, however, the scrolls and involuted bands, likewise the cartouches predominated, as they 
did in Italian and French Renaissance, taking the place of that finer vegetable ornament of the former time. 

The metal-plates were either etched, chased or damascened, more frequently however the designs 
were raised by embossment. 



Figs. 1 — 6. Representations of armour from the "Kabinet der Handzeichnungen alter Meister' 
at Munich. 



.-=3..<^. 




Plate 72. 



GERMAN RENAISSANCE. 

POLYCHROME PLASTIC WORK. 



I 



t was the delight taken in bright, Hfe-like representations, which induced the artists of the Renais- 
sance period to enliven their sculpture by means of colours. The large magnificent ceihng, for instance, 
in the knights'-hall of the Castle at Heiligenberg is almost entirely covered with colours, which being in 
perfect harmony with each other, only serve to heighten the effect of the sculpture. In like manner by 
colouring, a peculiar charm is bestowed upon the two supporters of stags-horns and on the central figure, 
which wood or stone work alone would not have given them. 

In wood and stone carving too of the later German Renaissance a predominance of cartouches and 
band-work is perceptible, the latter causing various and interesting twistings and intcrlacings. 

The female figure in Fig. 11 represents Ursula, by birth Countess Palatine by Rhine, consort of 
Duke Levvis, the builder of the "Lusthaus". In the "Lusthaus" however, which unfortunately exists no 
more, another figure stood on the represented console, the coat of arms referring to that. 

At one time about 50 such console-figures decorated the arcades surrounding those gorgeous buildings. 



Figs. I — 10. Portions of the painted wood ceiling in the knights'-hall of the Castle at Heiligenberg. 

„ II. Console-figure from the arcades of the former "Lusthaus" at Stuttgart. 

„ 12 and 13. Scutcheons carved from peartree-wood in the "Museum vaterlandischer Altertiimer" 
at the same place, being part of the former furniture of a hunting-chamber 
belonging to the family Besserer at Ulm. Carved stags-heads with rare attires 
are fixed in the oval nombrils. 



GERMAN RENAISSANCE. 




Priuted b,v K. Hoelidanz, Stuttgart, Gcrtuaoy. 



METAL-WORK. 



72 



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Plate 73. 



GERMAN RENAISSANCE. 



ORNAMENTS FOR BOOK COVERS. 



F< 



or book-covers, the ornament.s of which were, during the period of good style, always treated as flat- 
ornaments, leather used to be employed almost exclusively. At first the contours of the design were 
sharply cut into the leather and the space, not covered by it, was deepened. Later on, however, small 
metal stamps were used, the patterns of which, when repeated side by side, produced the border framing 
the cover. In this case the corners were not specially elaborated , the borders meeting at these points by 
no rule. — Sometimes the book-cover is edged by such borders in several rows, an exceeding tallness 
of the empty central field being avoided by inserting special travers-borders along the narrow sides. The 
latter end was sometimes attained by beating or impressing the stamp-patterns in double rows, symmetrical 
to each other (Figs. 5 and 35). The central fields, being for the most part small, are then decorated either 
with stuff-patterns or with corner- and middle-pieces (F'igs. 9— 11, 13, 14, 23 — 26, 28 — 32 show patterns 
of the latter kind). 

Besides these, however, many book-covers are found with free, often coloured arabesques and 
intertwisted bands (compare Plate 65, Figs. 6 and 7), these being in the flourishing time of art, framed 
with borders, whilst later on, instead of these borders, corner-pieces very similar to metal-work, used to 
be added. 

The most sumptuous, of course, were covers decorated with real metal-work, especially when 
precious metals were employed. In this case the ornament is usually cast in relief or embossed. Fig. i 
however shows an ornament of silver simply sawn out and afterwards engraved. 

Finally, may be mentioned, that in decorating the back of the book, cording in a pretty manner 
was made use of, this being marked either by leather pads or by deepened horizontal lines, thus producing 
several compartments which were filled up with simple decorations. 



Fig. I. Silver-eged book-cover (natural size) from the "Sammlung vaterliindischer Altertiimer" at 
Stuttgart. 
„ 2 — 36. Decorations on hog's-leather covers (executed in blind-printing) from the Royal "Hand- 
bibliothek" at Stuttgart. 



■ M > * 




Plate 74. 



GERMAN RENAISSANCE. 

EMBROIDERY and WEAVING. 




I'ig. 7, 



I 



_n embroidery the character of the ornament depends principally, of course, on the technical process; 
regarding our plate, however, the immense difference between Figs. 3 and 4 on the one side and Figs, i 
and 5 on the other, results from the circumstance, that the former figures betray a strong Gothic influence, 
whilst in the latter the artist followed rather Oriental examples. Especially the elegant interlacing in Fig. 5, 
as well as the beautiful manner, in which the surfaces in Figs, i and 5 are filled up, recall Eastern orna- 
ments to the beholder's mind ; the weaving in Fig. 7 decidedly bearing the stamp of a marked affinity 
with Persian style. 

But notwithstanding all that. Renaissance preserves in these patterns its peculiar nature and its 
original features, (Figs, i, 5, 6.) 

The emlDroidery in Fig. 5 was executed in the first years of the 17A century, at which time the 
silk-embroiderers of Munich were far and wide renowned. 



Fig. I. 

V 2. 

« 3- 

„ 4- 

„ 5- 

„ 6. 

„ 7- 



Table-cover embroidered in cross-stitch, in the possession of Mr. Schauffele, confectioner 

at Schwabisch-Hall. 
Linen-embroidery from the Bavarian "National-Museum" at Munich. 
Embroidered border from a carpet ibid. 
Carpet embroidered on cloth. Ibid. (1560— 1590.) 
Curtain-border embroidered on velvet in applique-work (i6cm wide) from the rich chape 

in the Royal Residence at Munich. 
Border of a gold-embroidered leather-pouch in the Bavarian 'National-Museum' at Munich. 
Pattern of a woven material in the church at Weingarten. 







GERMAN RENAISSANCE. 



73 







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Printeri by E. Hochdanz, Stuttgari, Germaoy. 



ORNAMENTS FOR BOOK COVERS. 



GERMAN RENAISSANCE. 



74 




Priuleri by K, Hoclidaiiz, SUittyart. Gei-mai] 



EMBROIDERY AND WEAVING. 




Plate 75. 



GERMAN RENAISSANCE. 

TYPOGRAPHIC ORNAMENTS. 




T^ 



Fig. 14. 



he custom of decorating printings with artistic initials, marginal borders etc. is nearly as old as typo- 
graphy itself. In the beginning, Gothic forms, of course, were still prevailing; but the transition from 
the 15 th to the 16 th century marked a new era for this branch of art. Of marked and decisive im- 
portance was particularly the activity of the greatest German artists of that period, viz of Holbein, Diirer 
and others; they were continually creating new ornamental alphabets and drawing titles, tail-pieces etc. 
thus elevating typography to a very high standard. — Numerous towns were renowned for their 
printing-offices, and in the third decennium of the 16 A century, when the great masters were de- 
ceased, their successors could still live a long time from the store accumulated by those predecessors. 
However it could not fail, that in the course of time this branch also participated in the general decline 
of revived classical art, and Fig. 15 may prove, to what abuses wood-cut ornamentation had come down. 
A glance at Plate 59 shows , that German book-ornamentation can well stand comparison with 
French, although the former often appears somewhat less refined than the latter. 



Fig. 



9 
10 

IT 
12 
13 

'4 
15 



Title-frame (15 19) probably by Hieronymus Hopfer. 

Initial by A. Diirer. 

Frieze (1539) by A. Aldengrever. 

Initial from a dance-of-death alphabet by Hans Holbein. 

Marginal decoration from the prayer-book of the Emperor Charles V. by A. Diirer. 

Frieze (1528) by H. S. Beham. 

Initial (15 18) by an unknown master. 

Do. by Paul Frank. 

Do. by Jost Aman. 

Do. (1527 — 1532) from Hans Holbein's children's alphabet. 

Do. by an unknown master. 

Frieze by J. Binck. 

Initial by P. Frank. 

Head-piece by Theodor de Bry. 

Tail-piece by J. H. von Bemmel. 




Fig. 15- 



Plate 76. 



GERMAN RENAISSANCE. 



POLYCHROME PLASTIC WORKS. 



V^ur representations illustrate further details of the ceiling in the large knight's hall of the castle of Heiligen- 
berg mentioned with Plate 72. This ceiling is carved entirely of lime-wood and profusely coloured, specially 
with blue, red, green, gold and silver. But in spite of this richness of colours and the surprising variety 
of foliage, tendrils, ribbon-work, figures etc. it does not in the least appear overladen or unquiet, but the 
total impression on the eye is, as mentioned before, throughout agreeable and harmonious. 






GERMAN RENAISSANCE. 




frintert by Max Seeger, Stuttgart, Germany, 



■TYPOGRAPHIC ORNAMENTS. 



1 



GERMAN RENAISSANCE. 



76 




l-'riiiu^l by ftl;ix .'jGeger, Stuttgart, Germany. 



POLYCHROME PLASTIC WORKS. 



Plate 77. 



GERMAN RENAISSANCE. 



PLASTIC ORNAMENTS m STONE and WOOD. 



1 n defining the general difference between the Italian Renai.ssance ornament and the German , we may 
say, that the former, though equally profuse in the variety of forms, is still superior to the latter in 
refinement and elegance, especially of the figural element, and not less in a fairer distribution of the 
decorations over the surfaces ; but there is no denying , that many achievements of German art are 
equivalent to those of that southern country, of which the ornamental decorations of the numerous 
magnificent Renaissance buildings in Germany give plain evidence. 



Fig. I. Herma from the tombs of Wurttembergian princes in the choir of the "Stiftskirche" 

at Stuttgart. 
„ 2. Panel on the pillar of a bar in the great hall of the town-house at Nuremberg. 
„ 3. Intrado on a door in the, "Otto-Heinrichs-Bau" of Heidelberg Castle. 
„ 4. Dado at a tomb of the "Schenken" at Limpurg in the choir of the principal church 

at Gaildorf. 
„ 5 — 10. Wood carved panels and friezes from a hall ceiling in the castle at Jever. 



Plate 78. 



GERMAN RENAISSANCE. 



CEILING AND WALL PAINTING. 



o. 



'ur plate presents a splendid, though very peculiar mode of wall painting. The so-called golden hall 
in the Castle at Urach is entirely decorated in this manner. The walls are generally flat, but divided in 
compartments by the painting, showing throughout a decoration which involuntarily reminds the beholder 
of models of the iron work technique. This resemblance is all the more apparent from the various inter- 
lacements and borderings. In the latter we find the palm tree with the device "Attcmpto" (see Fig. 5) 
frequently repeated, which seems to point to the reign of "Eberhard im Bart", but the painting and 
architecture of the hall belong most undoubtedly to the end of the 16* century. The visible beams 
of the simply decorated ceiling are brownish red, but the narrow compartments between them are lightly 
coloured. Although the painting is limited to few colours (browni.sh red, white, gold and blue), yet it 
makes a beautiful and agreeable impression. 



Fig. I. Spandril on wall compartments. 
,, 2. Panel in a window flanning. 
,, 3 and 4. Decorations of columns. 
„ 5. Decoration on the window parapets. 

„ 6 and 7. Middle and corner pieces at the friezes bordering the wall compartments. 
„ 8—1 1. Decoration on the ceiling beams with reHef wood rosettes and knos. 

„ 12. Wooden hood moulding. 

The whole from the golden hall at Urach. 



GERMAN RENAISSANCE. 




Priutert by Max Sepger, Slutl^'art, Gcrmauy. 



PLASTIC ORNAMENTS IN STONE. 



I 



GERMAN RENAISSANCE. 



78 




Printed by K. IIuclid:mz, Sttitlznrt, German 



CEILING AND WALL PAINTING. 



Table 78 A. 



GERMAN RENAISSANCE. 

WALL-PAINTING, PLASTIC ORNAMENT in STONE 

AND WOOD. 



VV hereas the Italian influence is distinctly shown in the German wall-painting on PI. 69, the examples 
on this plate present a strong contrast to them , and we find in this cartouche-like frame-work with its 
bold, fanciful volutes and elegant festoons the severity peculiar to German decoration from the commen- 
cement of the XVIPlv century. In German ecclesiastical Art the Gothic style was adhered to until far 
into the XVn!3- century , and only in the latter half of this century was it displaced by the Renaissance 
in Church architecture. However , the groined ceilings with their gorgeous keystones , the pointed and 
sometimes traceried windows still recall the Art of the Middle-Ages. The decorative artist by remar- 
kable elaboration of detail then endeavoured to produce an impression of vivid colours and rich gold, 
recalling mediaeval colour decoration, but at the same time by the invention of new forms to create novel 
and charming effects. These we experience on looking at the interior of the celebrated Church at Freuden- 
stadt, built by the Ducal Architect Heinrich Schickhardt, of Herrenberg, and the examples on our plate 
are sufficient witness of its rich and magnificent decoration. In the detail of this splendid composition 
by the painter Jakob Zuberlein we observe a capricious and rather wild imagination, as is met with, to 
a still greater extent in Wendel Dietterleins designs (Fig. 9) , but when we see how agreeable and har- 
monious is the impression produced by the rich colouring of the decoration and details , we cannot but 
pay high respect to this period of Art , the more so as at that time the aim in the decoration of 
Protestant churches was to break with the old traditions, and to create new forms on entirely rational 
principles — an experiment which was attended with marked success in the Church at Freudenstadt. 



I'ig. I — 8. Portions of painted frescoes in the Church at Freudenstadt. 
„ 9. Door-Panel b Wendel-Uietterlein, painter at Strassburg 159S. From his work 



, Architect ura". 




Fio 



GERMAN RENAISSANCE. 



78^- 




Primed by K. Hocbdanz, Sluttgarl, Germsny. 



WALL-PAINTING, PLASTIC ORNAMENT IN STONE AND WOOD. 



Plate 79. 



GERMAN RENAISSANCE. 

CARTOUCHES and WORKS IN PRECIOUS METALS 

WITH ENAMEL. 



ih( 



.he forms of German and Italian Renaissance show the greatest affinity with each other in the department 
of works of precious metals; for the new style was introduced into Germany mainly by such works; 
the German artists, on the other hand, managed to attain the standard of the Italian goldsmiths' productions 
not only in regarding their technical perfection, but also of the beauty of their forms. Southern Germany 
especially with its numerous industrial towns, soon became a centre for noted workmen in precious metals. 
Drinking vessels, table-services, weapons, rings, girdles, ornamented pendants, bracelets, ecclesiastical 
plate, etc. gave abundant scope for rich artistic treatment. However it must be mentioned, that the 
tendency to direct imitation of nature, especially in flowers and tendrils, as well as the liking for pecu- 
larities soon paved the way, in this as in other departments of art, for the Baroque style. 

How much cartouches were favoured in that period, we infer from their application to the most 
various purposes. (Figs, i and 2.) 



Fig. I and 2. Cartouches from a pedigree in the "Sammlung vaterlandischer Altertiimer" 
at Stuttgart. 
„ 3—17. Divers decorations on little altars, reliquaries and on a cross from the treasure of 
the rich chapel of the Royal Residence at Munich. 
18 — 20. Parts of ornamental objects. 
21—23. Parts of mountings on a baldrick after parchment drawings by Hans Mielich. 

24. Ornamental pendant from the "Sammlung des griinen Gewblbes" at Dresden. 

25. Point of a scabbard by Hans Mielich. 

26. Ornamental pendant from the Museum at Pest. 



;^H^ 



^ 



Plate 80. 



XVII. AND XVIII. CENTURIES. 

EMBROIDERY, LEATHER TAPESTRY and GOLDSMITH'S 

WORK. 



V_yn our plate, the period of decaying Renaissance and the dominion of the succeeding Rococo and 
Baroquestyles are distinctly characterized by the naturalism of the flowers, the intricate lines, the unquiet 
motion in the drawing and embroidering in Fig. i , as well as more particularly by the tendency for a 
plastical treatment of the ornament. 

Fig. 3 belongs to the actual Rococo time. 




Fig. I. Embroidery from the "Sammlung vaterlandischer Altertiimer" at Stuttgart, having" 
formerly served as a hanging over an altar in the convent church at Weingarten. 

„ 2. Embroidered chasuble from the same collection. 

,, 3. Border of stamped leather hangings. 

„ 4 and 5. Decorations on the belly of a silver drinking cup, partly gilt, from a reproduction 
of the Hungarian "Landes-Kunstgewerbe-Museum" at Budapest. 



GERMAN RENAISSANCE. 



79 




Printed by M, beeger, Stutl^nr'. Germany. 



FRAMES AND WORKS IN PRECIOUS METALS WITH ENAMEL. 




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Table 80 A. 



XVIIti AND XVIII* CENTURIES. 

GOBELIN TAPESTRY AND BOOK-BINDING. 



I o supplement Plate 69 we give here (Fig. i) a Gobelin carpet with landscape back-ground, which 
was intended for the decoration of a salon at the palace of St. Germain. 

In this fine work we admire the imaginative composition in which the decorative forms of 
architecture and plants, with naturalistic flowers, surround a delicately coloured landscape. The Artist 
responsible for this design was the painter 
D'Espouy, employed by Louis XIV., and 
he, like all great French decorators of that Jjl 
period, conformed to the laws and claims ' 
imposed by the technic of Gobelin wea- 
ving. 

Although the preparation of the wea- . 
ved copy demands great skill, and for an [' 
exact resemblance of the original a master- 
hand is necessary , which can employ the 
most effectual methods, yet we must also "ij 
remember that the perfection of this »pic- -^ 
ture-weaving« absolutely depends on the ^jf'r 
excellence of the painting. At the same U- 
time the painter must keep in mind the U' 
necessity of suiting his design to the tech- [jj 
nical processes at the weaver's command, ( 
and must avoid effects only attainable by 
painting in oils. If these rules are follow- 
ed the copied fabric will have an artistic |l|| 
value in spite of all temporary changes of jlj 
taste. f I 

Already at the beginning of the 
XVIItJi- century the most celebrated artists 
did not disdain to place their talent in the j;|j 
service of the first workshop established ',\i 
under Henry IV., and afterwards in the royal 
manufactory. The French Government even 
succeeded in gaining for its manufacture the 
greatest foreign artists. 

The beautiful binding from the time 
of Louis XV. reminds us of the forms of 
textile work. Fig. 3. 




Fig. I. GobeHn tapestry for the Castle of St. Germain, designed for Louis XIV. by D'Espouy. 
„ 2. Border of a gobelin carpet representing the triumph of Hercules for Louis XIV. 

rooms at Versailles, designed by Noel Coypel (compare PI. 66.) 
„ 3. Binding with the Arms of Gaspard Moise de Fontanieu (i755). 

Fig. I & 2. Drawn by N. Vivien of Paris. 
„ 3. From Blanc's „Grammaire des Arts Decoratifs". 



-^s4^^ 



Plate SqB. 



XVII^^ AND XVIiri CENTURIES. 

METALWORK and WOODCARVING. 




JL he Baroque style, which originated in the reign of Louis XIV. 
first took the form of a development of the Renaissance , but 
appropriated to itself many characteristics of ancient work. On 
the whole, especially as regards ornament, it can be described 
as grand and noble, and is not wanting in variety and change; 
it suffers, however, from extravagant profusion, even to heaviness. 

In the last 25 years of this reign, i. e. from 1690, the 
time of Charles Lebrun , the renowned decorator, there began 
a certain transformation in this style. The king, weary of the 
great ceremonials, retired into close family life, while the great 
banquets at Versailles were discontinued, and commissions for 
extensive decorative works kept on decreasing. In this way 
the demand arose for a less ornate and formal style, better 
adapted to domestic life. 

Hardouin Mansart tried to bring about a revulsion in 
this direction, but the change was only clearly felt under Robert 
de Cotte, 1699, and from this point a lighter and freer form 
of ornament is noticeable. For further information see PI. 82. 



Fig. I 



i— 12. 



13- 



Table mountings in the Royal Bavarian 
Museum, Munich. (Louis XIV. Period). 

Various French woodcarvings. Fig. 1 1 from 
the Choirstalls of Notredame at Paris. 

From an Engraving. 



Fig- 13- 



^^<S^^^^9'^^— 



XVIIS AND XVIIIS CENTURIES 



80 



A. 




Printed by M. rieeger, Siulig.irt, Germany. 



GOBELIN -TAPESTRY. 




XVir"- AND XVIIP- CENTURIES. 



80' 




METALWORK AND WOODCARVING. 



Plate 8 1. 



XVIII. CENTURY. 



MOSAIC FLOORS. 



O. 



'ur plate represents some floors executed in a very original manner. According to the capricious 
style of art which extended its dominion over all the numerous German courts during the epoch in question, 
we do not find so much geometric patterns applied to these inlaid floors, as rather grandly composed designs, 
displaying full life, and having a peculiar charm through the variously coloured woods, especially where 
vegetable objects are represented. 

The whole of the depicted patterns were executed by Johann Georg Beyer, cabinet-maker to the 
Wurttembergian court at Stuttgart, for the Solitude, a chateau near Stuttgart, built by Charles, Duke of 
Wurttemberg, during 1763 — 1767. However, only a small portion of these precious floors is preserved at 
the present day. 

The original drawings are in the possession of Mr. Beyer, joiner at Ludwigsburg, a descendant of 
the above named cabinet-maker. 



^^ 



Plate 82. 



XVn. AND XVIII. CENTURIES. 



PLASTIC ORNAMENTS, 



A 



glance at the Plates 82 — 84 enables us to recognize plainly the characteristic difference between 
the "Barocque", "Rococo" and "Zopf" Styles, termed also the styles of Louis Quatorze, Louis Ouinze 
and Louis Seize. 

The Louis Quatorze style appears first as a development of Renaissance, but contains many antique 
motives. On the whole this style can be called gorgeous and grand, especially as regards ornament; nor 
is it devoid of change and variety, but sometimes degenerating into luxurious extravagance, it gets 
overloaded. Henceforth shell-work plays a great role and scroll work in the corners characterizes the 
borders. 

All this, undergoing many exaggerations towards the close of the long reign of Louis XIV., 
gives a basis for developing the Rococo style, which predominated under the reign of Louis XV. 



Fig. I. Panel decorations at door and window niches in the throne room of the Castle at 
Fontainebleau. (Style of Louis XIV.). 
„ 2. Projecting plane pattern in the panels of door and window niches in the queen's 
bed-chamber in the same Castle. (Style of Louis XIV.) 

3. Wood carving from a wainscot in the Chateau de Bercy. (Style of Louis XIV.) 

4. Capital of a mirror in the state-room of the Hotel de Lauzun at Paris. (Style of Louis XIV.) 

5. Capital designed by the German Master Paul Decker. (Style of Louis XIV.) 

6. Capital in the Salle des Medallions of the Palace of Versailles. (Louis XV.) 

7. Corner of a mirror frame in the queen's bed chamber at Versailles. (Louis XV.) 

8. Piece of architecture in the style of Louis XV. (After A. Rosis 1753.) 

9. Vignette after T. Johnsohn Carver (1761). (After A. Rosis 1753.) 







XVIIP- CENTURY. 



81. 




MOSAIC FLOORS. 



XVir^ AND XVIII'i CENTURY 



82 




Printed by Max Seeger. Sfiittjcftrt. 



PLASTIC ORNAMENTS 



Plate 82 A. 



XVIII* CENTURY. 

PAINTED PLASTERWORK. 



T^ 



he figures of our plate, as well as figs. 2 of PI. 83 and 6 of 82B show the nature of the 
and the method by which it was carried out in the Ducal castle of Bruchsal. 

If these examples are not distin- 
guished by the highest elegance and grace, 
they are at least of characteristic design 
and specially interesting colouring. While 
in the Rococo style as a rule there is 
beside white but little gold, the natural 
portions are here very gorgeously exe- 
cuted, and produce a very charming im- 
pression. The richness and luxuriance 
of this style is best shown by the large 
cornices which surround the ceilings (figs. 4 
and 5 of this plate and fig. 2 of 83). At 
the same time the ground of individual 
panels is kept in very light tones, and 
sometimes gaily painted allegorical sub- 
jects are inserted. This kind of painting, 
which is often over raised plaster, is car- 
ried out with such nicety that separate 
limbs, such as feet and arms in painted 
plaster, are detached and stand out from 
the painting without at all disturbing the 
harmony. The centre of the ceiling is 
used for hanging groups or figures, or 
light decoration in plaster. There is pro- 
bably no more agreeable combination of 
Architecture, Sculpture, and Painting than 
in the Rococo style. 

The furniture, with its quaint 
curves, adjoins the rich wall decorations, 
and seems to rival them in beautiful effect, 

In direct contrast to the fine orna- 
mental scroll work of Rococo interiors 
is the simplicity of the noble classical 
severity of the exteriors of the period. 



Rococo style, 




Figs. 1—3. Portions of Carved Panelling in the Ducal Castle of Bruchsal. 
,, 4—5. Portions of Plaster Ceiling in the same room. 
„ 6. Panel by Frangois Boucher (1703 — 1770). 

j.-ig. 1 — 5. Drawn by H. Eberhardt, Stuttgart. 



#3^e^ 



Plate 82 B. 



XVIIK CENTURY. 

GOBELIN WEAVING. 



B. 



before proceeding to consider the Gobelin work represented on this plate, we will take a glance back 
at the period of Louis XIV. 

The most productive and brilliant period of Gobelin manufacture was about 1660, when Colbert, 
the able minister of Finance , conferred on the gifted painter Lebrun the direction of the workshops 
erected for the furniture and decoration of the Royal Castles. Lebrun could not have succeeded in the 
gigantic responsibilities imposed upon him by his numerous undertakings, had he not understood, like no 
other, how to direct his workmen to unite their efforts to accomplish the stupendous tasks, the fulfilment 
of which the vain king impatiently awaited, and which were only to be surmounted by skilful division of 
labour. Thus we often find ten painters engaged at the same time on designs, the main ideas of which 
almost always came from Lebrun, and it is also noticeable that such subject as flowers, friezes, landscapes, 
the chase, musical instruments etc. were each treated by a specialist, without the freedom of expression 
in the design suffering thereby. 

It is no wonder, therefore, that in the ensuing period under Louis XV. and XVI. Artists such as 
Watteau, Boucher, Tessier, Jacques and others should have taken up the work, or that they were certain 
of a triumph in the pursuit of a special department of art. For instance, if we observe the tasteful 
manner in which Tessier, the king's-flower painter, could group his flowers and fruit in characteristic 
garlands, and bouquets, we shall not hesitate to reckon him one of the finest flower-painters of the 
French school. The details here represented, from important works by this master, give some idea of 
his marked ability. 



Fig. I. Chair-seat by Louis Tessier (Louis XV.). 

Basket of fruit by the same Artist (Louis XV.). 

Garland „ „ „ „ (Louis XV.). 

Chair-Back by Jacques (Louis XVI.). 

Doorpanel by this Artist (Louis XVI.). 

Portion of carved panelling in the castle of Bruchsal. 

g. 1 — 5. Drawn by W. Vivien, Paris. 



Fig. 6. 



H. Eberhardt, SluUgart. 




¥\P. 6. 



XVIIpi^- CENTURY. 



82' 




PAINTED PLASTERWORK. 






H 

o 







o 

> 
u 



u 
m 

o 

o 



Plate 83. 



XVII. AND XVIII. CENTURIES. 

PAINTING, LEATHER TAPESTRY and STUCCO 

ORNAMENTS. 



o, 



'ur Fig. 2 is best fitted for exemplifying the nature of the Rococo (style of Louis XV.). For here, 
as also on Plate 82, Figs. 6 — 8, we meet with an unbounded capriciousness in the treatment of the lines, 
a superabundance of flowers, scroll work and cartouches, an overloading with decorative elements. Genii 
and figures in general being everywhere applied, and allegories, as well as emblems, very much favoured. 
In particular may be noted, that the decoration goes its own way, instead being subordinate to the essential 
forms of the construction. However it cannot be denied, that the creations of Rococo frequently exhibit 
a remarkably elegant and vigorous, though peculiar and bold ornamentation. Moreover we admire in 
this style the harmonious co-operation of architecture, sculpture and painting, rarely found elsewhere. 



Fig. I. Stamped leather hangings in the style of Louis XIV. from the "Sammlung vater- 
landischer Altertiimer" at Stuttgart. 
„ 2. Ceiling decoration from the Castle at Bruchsal. 
„ 3. Painted door panel from a manor house at Paris. 




Plate 84. 



XVIII. CENTURY. 



PLASTIC 



AND 



PAINTED ORNAMENTS. 



Zc 



^opfstyle" — this term is sometimes mistaken for Barocque, even Rococo, whilst it signifies merely 
the style, (certainly rather barren and stiff sometimes), which art chose under I.ouis XVI., in opposition 
as it were, to the pompous and confused style under Louis XV, by returning to the antique. 

Compared with the extravagances of Rococo the quiet, strict forms of the Zopfstyle produce 
a feeling of satisfaction in the mind of the beholder, unless, as is often the case, repose degenerates into 
rigidness, and strictness into barrenness. 



Fig. I. Wood carving on a wainscot in the music room of the arsenal library at Paris (Style 
of Louis XV.) 
„ 2 and 3. Carved pilaster from the wainscot of a saloon at Paris. (Style of Louis XVI.) 
„ 4. Painted frieze from the boudoir of Queen Marie Antoinette in the Castle at Fon- 

tainebleau. (do.) 
,, 5. Panel of a stucco cavetto at a ceiling of a saloon at Paris, (do.) 
,, 6. Carved wall panel above a saloon door in the Hotel de Ville at Bordeaux, (do.) 
„ 7. Vignette from Berthault et Bachelier (1760). (Louis XV.) 





Fig. 7. 



XVIl^ AND XVIII^^ CENTURIES. 



83 




!■ Printed by Max Seeger, Stuttgart, Germauy. 



PAINTING, LEATHER TAPESTRY AND STUCCO ORNAMENTS. 



XVIIP^- CENTURY. 




H. Dolmetsch. 



Printed at Stultgarl. 



PLASTIC AND PAINTED ORNAMENTS. 



Plate 85. 



XVII. AND XVm. CENTURIES. 



LACE WEAVING and EMBROIDERY. 



1 



±. he three kinds of style, last mentioned, exerted a wide influence on the ornamentation of dwelling 
rooms, and especially on the decoration of all objects of clothing. Here too, marked differences 
may easily be discerned. In Figs, i, 2, 5 for instance, the stricter mode of idealising, points still to 
a certain connexion with the Rennaissance, whilst Figs. 5 and 6 and especially Figs.' 4 and 7 manifest the 
increasing preponderance of naturalism. 



Fig. I. Lace in the style of Louis XIV., in the possession of C. Baur, manufacturer of furniture 
at Biberach. 
,, 2. Embroidery on a silk waistcoat. (Louis XIV.) 
,, 3. Embroidery on a silk coat (Louis XV.) from the "Sammlung vaterlandischer Altertiimer" 

at Stuttgart. 
,, 4. Silk embroidery from a velvet waistcoat (Louis XVI.) ibid. 
„ 5. Silk texture from a chasuble. (Louis XIV.) 
„ 6. Woven silk stuff for clothes. (Louis XV.) 
,, 7. Woven stuff of silk and wool. (Louis XVI.) 



I>^- 



Printed by Hoftmann, Stuttgart, Germany. 



XVIP^- AND XVIIl"^- CENTURIES. 



85 




Stuttgart. 



LACE WEAVING AND EMBROIDERY. 



Plate 86. 



xviiisl century. 

METAL FITTINGS. 



T 



was 
ew 



he love of splendour common to all French sovereigns of the XVIIth and XVIIIth centuries 
especially shown in the decoration of furniture, and every period had its master, who proceeded upon n... 
Hnes, according to his individual taste or talent. In the reign of Louis XIV., when gigantic and luxu- 
riously fitted rooms were in vogue, we find furniture with bold mountings of bronze, as represented on 
PI. 8oB, Figs. 1-7, or the luxurious creations of Boule, the famous cabinet-maker of the court fon PI 61 
erroneously assigned to Louis XVI.), which he manufactured from ebony with bronze fittings ~ and fine 
metal inlay on a tortoiseshell ground (PI. 6-], Fig. 21 and PI. 68, Fig. i). This gracefully-formed and 
effectively coloured furniture, was, however, still more appropriate for the smaller interiors of the ensuing 
period (the Regency and Louis XV.). The colouring became softer, and rosewood mounted in bronze 
was substituted for ebony. (See Fig. 16). Here especially the great talent of Charles Cressent celebrated 




Fig. 1 6. 

as sculptor, carver, and cabinet-maker comes into play, and his versatility was so great that he could 
impart to his work a uniform and very unusual charm. The versatile Meissonier, previously mentioned 
(PL 83) was also a goldsmith and bronzeworker of the highest reputation. In the same way we find 
Jacques Caffieri, the famous sculptor, founder, and carver, at work on bronzes which he very tastefully 
applied to furniture, — probably in conjunction with Jean Frangois Ocben, the court cabinet-maker. 

The figures of our plate show a collection of bronze furniture mountings of the time of Louis XVI., 
a time in which we are accustomed to see delicate decorations of a fanciful taste. To this period belongs 
the ornament in which swags and ribbons, doves, quivers, torches, and all kinds of trophies, are mingled 
into an agreeable and symbolic whole. 



Figs. I — 15. Metal mountings from casts in the collection of plaster casts in the Royal 

Technical Institute, Stuttgart. 
Fis. 16. Desk of Louis XVI. in the Louvre. 



Plate 87. 



COMMENCEMENT OF THE XlX'i CENTURY. 

WALL-PAINTING and CEILING-DECORATION. 



I 



n speaking later of the so-called Empire style, we must be understood to imply the transitional style 
prevailing from the close of the Louis XVI. period to the first French empire, and the Empire style coming 
down to 181 5. Although the unsettled political condition at the end of the XVIII tk century seriously threatened 

of art, in which direction 
a tendency was already 
noticeable in the style of 
Louis XVI. In art the craze 
was now for the pure Greek 
and Roman styles, even to 
the extent of reviving the 
dress and customs of these 
countries. In this change 
the chief part was taken by 
David , the famous painter, 
who was closely connected 
with politics, and who, under 
the administration of Na- 
poleon I., breaking with 
the old order, followed the 
style in which Caesar had 
lived. Besides David, the 
architect Percier, associated 
with his colleague Fontaine, 



to extinguish the Arts in 
France, yet the love of art 
inborn in her people sprang 
from the chaos of the re- 
volution, and caused the na- 
tional leaders, even at the 
time of greatest affliction, 
tO'found a National Museum 
in order to preserve for 
future study the finest pro- 
ducts of the Arts of past 
times. By this step they 
preserved from destruction 
by the revolutionary fana- 
tics many fine works of art 
which tell of the days of 
the overthrown monarchy. 
The new republicanism 
was destined to find increa- 
sing expression in the realm 




often applied his great ability to all departments of industrial art. This new French style was so esteemed 
that it was soon adopted all over Europe. 



Figs. 1—6. Wall and ceiling decorations from King Frederick I's work-room in the castle of 

Ludwigsburg. 
Fig. 7. Ceiling decoration by Basoli, from a photograph. 



XVIIP- CENTURY. 



86 




Priuted at Stuttgart. 



METAL FITTINGS. 



COMMENCEMENT OF THE XIX*^- CENTURY. 



87 




Piiutcd flt Stuttgart. 



WALL-PAINTING AND CEILING-DECORATION. 



I 



Plate 88. 



COMMENCEMENT OF THE XIX* CENTURY. 

GOBELIN TAPESTRY AND LACEWORK. 



T^ 



he chief subject on this plate (Fig. i) bears emphatic testimony to the fact that the art of flower- 
painting had descended without deterioration from the time of Louis XV. and XVI., when the work of 
Tessier, Jacques and others had attained such excellence, down to the days of the first Empire. This 
fine design is by the painter Saint-Ange , who was doubtless engaged in the Gobelin manufacture, but 



whose name, like that of 
many other capable artists 
of the kind, is but little 
known, and would have been 
completely forgotten , had 
they not also occupied them- 
selves in preparing designs 
to be engraved on copper, 
through the publication of 
which their names have been 
preserved. 

While it was customary 
until the end of the XVIIfth 
century to treat with much 
artistic skill the frames or 
borders of the tapestries, 
the Empire period was con- 




Fig. 6. 



tent with reproducing in it 
scenes from the time of the 
emperors which were almost 
devoid of decoration. 

It is interesting to com- 
pare the form of the fruit 
basket in Fig. i with those 
in Figs. 2 and 4 of PI. 82B, 
observing how the freedom 
of the age of Louis XV. 
changes in the following pe- 
riod to a more rigid and 
formal shape, and then takes 
that stiff form, ornamented 
with classic splendour usual 
in the Empire style. The 
position which these baskets 



occupy with regard to their method of fixture is also characteristic. Those of the two first periods are 
suspended picturesquely from hght ribbons, while the later example rises sedately from the stiff" Roman acanthus. 

The successful colouring of this design calls for special praise, as counteracting the tendency to 
dull colour noticeable in many ways in the style. 

With regard to the hangings and draperies so popular at the time of the first Empire, we here 
represent characteristic examples of the period. 



Fig. I. Panel of a Screen by Saint-Ange. 

Figs. 2 — 5. Borders of silk and velvet with woven tassels from draperies in the Castle 

of Ludwigsburg. 
Fig. 6. Fabric in the 'Garde-Meuble' collection at Paris. (From a photograph.) 



^'^e/^^-* 



COMMENCEMENT OF THE XIX**^- CENTURY. 



88 




I'riined ot Sliiitirai-i. 



GOBELIN TAPESTRY & LACEWORK. 



Plate 89. 



EMPIRE-STYLE. XIX^ Century. 



METAL-ORNAMENTS. 



lh( 



he tendency towards classical forms of art very noticeable in the style of Louis XVI, is even more 
evident in the period now under consideration. 

Furniture chiefl>^ made of mahagony is adorned with pretty bronze ornaments, and this gives 
to their somewhat stiff construction a graceful form, which fully merits admiration. 

The Napoleonic wars had considerable influence on the Empire-Style, in which afterwards were 
to be found emblems of Victory, eagles, laurel-wreaths and such like. In consequence of the Egyptian 
campaign new decorative elements were adopted, as for instance the capitals of Lotus-flowers, Sphinxes, 
winged lions and other I-i)gyptian figures, joined sometimes to Chinese designs. 

This enthusiasme for foreign forms unfortunately led to great errors by giving furniture the 
appearance of heavy Egyptian monuments, for instance writing tables formed like Pyramids etc., it being 
a common mistake to form architectural figures and ornaments of wood as though they were of stone. 
But in spite of such faults we must acknowledge, that at this period many objects of industrial art were 
created which, even if they show a certain dryness, still please us by the really noble effect they produce. 

Like in the Periods of the Styles of the preceding century, so also in the Empire-Style the new 
French taste very soon gained admittance in all other European countries. Owing to this circumstance 
the King's Palace at .Stuttgart contains a very large number of the most beautiful Empire furniture, of 
which the greater part of the 23 illustrations on our plate has been taken. 

Most interesting is the appearance of naturalistic ornamentation beside the strictly classisal Stjde. 



Fi"-. T— 23. Metal-Ornaments of furniture in the King's Palace at .Stuttgart and from the public 
collection of Wurttembcrg antiquities in that place. 



XIX^ CENTURY 

EMPIRE STYLE 



89 




H. Dolmetsch. 



Priuted by M. Uymmel &. Co., Siurtgart. 



METAL ORNAMENTS 



Plate 90. 



XVim^. AND XIX^ CENTURIES. 

SILK-WEAVING. 



J_ he silk industry, which flourished in France as early as the XlVth century received a further impetus 
in the XVIIth and still more in the XVIIIth century by the fashion of covering the walls, and upholstering 
the furniture, with valuable silk fabrics. This fashion was also helpful to the still older German silk trade. 
To supplement the few silk fabrics of the time of Louis XIV., XV. and XVI. shown on Plate 85, 
we give similar examples of the transition from Louis XVI. to the Empire style. Figs, i and 2 are 
noticeable as inclining to the first style. Apart from traces of Chinese influence we have here the grace- 
ful swags and floral festoons, the vases , cornucopiae and torches , the charming and dainty lightness of 
which are so delightful in the style of Louis XVI. , while in the frequent garlands , palms and shields 
we notice a foreshadowing of the style of the first Republic. Similarly in Fig. 3 the natural flowers 
remind us of the earlier period, while the rest of the figure and Figs. 4, S, 6 and 7 are pronouncedly 
'Empire'. 



Figs. 1—7. Silk from Specimens in the Royal Museum at Stuttgart. 
Fig. 8. From a wall paper (After a photograph). 

„ 9. Portion of a ceiling in the Castle of Ludvvigsburg (see 'Index'). 




l^'ig- 7- 



r 



XVIIl^'^- AND XIX^'- CENTURIES. 



90 




i'rinted nl .Stiittgan 



SILK-WEAVING. 



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